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2016年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2016.225
健康城市指标——衡量健康的适当工具?
Healthy Cities Indicators–A Suitable Instrument to Measure Health?

普蕾米拉·韦伯斯特 丹尼丝·桑德森

Premila Webster, Denise Sanderson

关键词:健康城市;健康指标

Keywords:Healthy Cities; Health Indicators

摘要:

健康策略的提出需要基于实证研究,应包含健康决定因素信息,以及这些因素如何联系在一起,达到影响人们健康的目的。世界卫生组织欧洲健康城市网络提出了一套健康城市指标(HCIs),内含指标53个,用以描述市民健康,并记录当地所采取的涉及健康的更广泛维度的一系列措施。这是第一次尝试系统收集和分析欧洲城市数据。该分析为数据的解释性、有效性和可行性提供了重要见解。在此基础上,健康城市项目对原有指标加以改进,减少至32个,同时完善原有定义。对改进过的指标进行分析后表明,数据的收集变得更完整和可行。健康城市指标为城市描述健康从而明确健康问题提供了有用信息;同时它突出了收集定性定量数据和指标数量的重要性,以及使用指标比较不同城市的适宜性问题,促进了常规有效健康数据的系统化收集。健康城市指标的引进鼓励城市采取结构化流程收集市民健康信息,并在这些信息基础上,通过收集适当的本地数据,来建立该城市的健康资料以支撑其健康规划。该规划将会提出增进健康的策略和干预手段,并为其他健康规划提供实证基础。

Abstract:

The evidence-base for a health strategy should include information on the determinants of health and how they link together if it is to influence the health of the population. The WHO European Healthy Cities Network developed a set of 53 healthy city indicators (HCIs), to describe the health of its citizens and capture a range of local initiatives addressing the wider dimensions of health. This was the first systematic effort to collect and analyze a range of data from European cities. The analysis provided important insights into the interpretation, availability, and feasibility of collecting data, resulting in the development of a revised set of 32 indicators with improved definitions. An analysis of the revised indicators showed that this data was more complete and feasible to collect. It provided useful information to cities contributing to developing a description of health and thus helping to identify health problems. It also highlighted issues about the importance of collecting qualitative as well as quantitative data, the number of indicators and the appropriateness of using the indicators to compare different cities. HCIs facilitated the collection of routinely available health data in a systematic manner. The introduction of HCIs has encouraged cities to adopt a structured process of collecting information on the health of their citizens and build on this information by collecting appropriate local data for developing a city health profile to underpin a city health plan that would set out strategies and interventions to improve health and provide the evidence-base for health plans.

版权信息:本文原载于《城市健康杂志》2013年第1期(Journal of Urban Health, 2013, 90[1]: 52-61);该杂志授权本刊发表中译文
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51578384),上海市科学技术委员会科研计划项目(14411951200)共同资助
作者简介:

普蕾米拉·韦伯斯特,牛津大学公共健康系,公共健康顾问、教育培训主管
丹尼丝·桑德森,原丹麦国家公共健康研究所,现马萨诸塞州公共健康署合同经理

译者简介:

徐望悦,同济大学建筑与规划学院城市规划系,硕士研究生。xuwangyue@tongji.edu.cn
赵晓菁(通信作者),上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院,主任医师;美国纪念斯隆—凯特琳癌症中心和梅奥临床中心访问学者。zhaoxiaojing@renji.com

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