点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:788
2016年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2016.325
美国波特兰的宜居城市建设经验及启示
Experience and Implications of Livable City Construction Practice in Portland, Oregon, the USA

魏德辉 谌丽 杨翌朝

Wei Dehui, Chen Li, Yang Yizhao

关键词:宜居城市;精明增长;城市增长边界;波特兰;经验启示

Keywords:Livable City; Smart Growth; Urban Growth Boundaries; Portland; Experience and Implications

摘要:

本文深入剖析美国“精明增长”先锋城市——波特兰的城市规划建设经验,为我国遏制城市蔓延问题和建设宜居城市提供借鉴。在精明增长理念下,波特兰制定了严格的城市增长边界来控制城市向外蔓延,同时在城市增长边界内提高建筑密度,并采取增加绿色环境和公共空间、大力推行公交和慢行系统、提高服务设施可达性等措施来缓解高密度带来的负面影响,城市规划具有系统性和综合性。这些措施之所以能够实施,得益于波特兰上下结合的规划制度体系。法律赋予波特兰都会区政府合法和坚实的执行权力,借助州、区域、地方自上而下的规划体系,同时获益于城市自下而上的公共参与和监督的传统。此外,波特兰还十分注重在规划中引入地理信息系统等先进技术。最后,本文探讨了波特兰的城市规划经验对中国宜居城市建设的借鉴和启示。


Abstract:

This paper describes planning/development experiences for achieving a livable city from the Portland Metropolitan Region, the so-called capital city of “Smart Growth” in the U.S., with a goal to provide policy recommendations for Chinese cities. Since the late 1970s the Portland region has established strict Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) to curb urban sprawl while making great efforts to increase development densities inside the UGBs; in the meantime, it has also adopted a series of measures to mitigate the negative externalities of high densities by increasing green space and public space, promoting transit and non-motorized transportation system, as well as improving services accessibility. The effectiveness and success of these systematic and comprehensive planning measures have been ensured with Oregon’s centralized planning system, Portland Metro government’s regional planning authority, a very strong tradition of public participation in the state, as well as the use of sophisticated planning support systems and evidencebased decision-making processes. The paper concludes with suggestions on how Chinese cities can learn from Portland to build more livable cities.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目“我国快速城市化地区人居环境演变规律与调控 机制研究”(41230632),国家自然科学基金青年项目“社会公平视角下北京 城市服务设施的空间优化与模拟研究”(41601160),北京市自然科学基金青 年项目“北京城市空间形态演变对居民通勤行为的影响研究”(9164027)
作者简介:

魏德辉,美国俄勒冈大学城市规划与公共管理系研究助理教授

谌丽,北京联合大学应用文理学院城市科学系讲师

杨翌朝,美国俄勒冈大学城市规划与公共管理系副教授


译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 张文忠, 谌丽, 党云晓, 等. 和谐宜居城市建设的理论与实践[M]. 北京:

    科学出版社, 2016.

    [2] 张文忠. 宜居城市建设的核心框架[J]. 地理研究, 2016(2): 205-213.

    [3] 陆大道, 姚士谋, 李国平, 等. 基于我国国情的城镇化过程综合分析[J].

    经济地理, 2007(6): 883-887.

    [4] 简· 雅各布斯. 美国大城市的死与生[M]. 金衡山, 译. 南京: 译林出版

    社, 2006.

    [5] 宋彦, 张纯. 美国新城市主义规划运动再审视[J]. 国际城市规划,

    2013(1): 98-103.

    [6] 段龙龙, 张健鑫, 李杰. 从田园城市到精明增长:西方新城市主义思

    潮演化及批判[J]. 世界地理研究, 2012(2): 72-79.

    [7] 张进. 美国的城市增长管理[J]. 国外城市规划, 2002(2): 37-40.

    [8] 刘家琳, 张建林. 波特兰雨洪管理景观基础设施实践调查研究[J]. 中

    国园林, 2015(8): 94-99.

    [9] 宿凤鸣. 交通与城市生长:美国波特兰的经验启示[J]. 综合运输,

    2015(6): 88-95.

    [10] Wikipedia. List of United States Cities by Population [EB/OL]. [2016-

    07-26]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_

    population.

    [11] Craig Beebe. Portland Region Nears 2.4 Million Residents, Growing

    by 41,000 Last Year [EB/OL]. (2016-03-23)[2016-07-26]. http://www.

    oregonmetro.gov/news/portland-region-nears-24-million-residentsgrowing-

    41000-last-year.

    [12] Eben F. Better Not Bigger: How to Take Control of Urban Growth and

    Improve Your Community[M]. Vancouver: New Society Publishers, 1999.

    [13] 宋彦, 许杰兰, 张永平. 城乡规划纳入公共政策:城市增长管理政策

    工具经验 [J].《 规划师》论丛 , 2012, 00: 2-7.

    [14] Laidley T. Measuring Sprawl: A New Index, Recent Trends, and Future

    Research[J]. Urban Affairs Review, 2016, 52(1): 66-97.

    [15] Portland Development Commision. River District Housing Implementation

    Strategy: Annual Report[R]. Portland: Portland Development Commision,

    2002.

    [16] Yang Yizhao. A Tale of Two Cities: Physical Form and Neighborhood

    Satisfaction in Metropolitan Portland and Charlotte[J]. Journal of the

    American Planning Association, 2008, 74(3): 307-323.

    [17] Trimet. Why Transit? [EB/OL]. [2016-07-26]. http://Trimet.org/whytransit/

    index.htm.

    [18] Knaap G, Bolen R, Seltzer E. Metro’s Regional Land Information System:

    The Virtual Key to Portland’s Growth Management Success[R]. Planning

    Advisory Service Memo, 2004, 5.

    [19] 康妮·小泽. 生态城市前沿:美国波特兰成长的挑战和经验[M]. 寇永霞,

    朱力, 译. 南京: 东南大学出版社, 2010.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

2627132