点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:1049
2017年第3期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.153
紧凑而富有活力的香港城市发展模式
Compact and Vibrant Urban Development Approach of Hong Kong

陈汉云 陈婷婷

Chan Edwin Hon-wan, Chen Tingting

关键词:高密度;紧凑;活力;香港

Keywords:High Density; Compact; Vitality; Hong Kong

摘要:

1841—1997 年间,香港曾为英国殖民地,并于1997 年回归中华人民共和国。这170 年间香港沧海桑田的巨变,主要受中西文化合璧的影响——既深受英国殖民地时代的影响,又保留着传统的中国文化,先进的规划理念、浓郁的现代气息和高度自治缔造出香港独特的都会文化与魅力。香港从一座小渔村发展成为国际金融中心和亚洲的经济、文化、航运中心,以及全球最受欢迎的旅游城市之一。香港亦是典型的山多平地少地区,政府以移山填海方式扩展土地,但超过65% 的土地仍未被开发。尽管近年来香港的楼市不断创新高,但香港政府大量兴建公营房屋,超过40%的家庭居住在租金低廉的公营房屋。在香港,贫富悬殊问题一直严重,有很多贫困人士生活条件恶劣,特别是老年人,仍居住在环境恶劣、狭小的居住空间中。通过回顾香港回归20 年以来城市的发展与变迁,本文探讨了受殖民地影响的城市发展模式是否依然适合当前香港城市发展的需求并迎接新的机遇与挑战?毗邻珠江三角洲地区的区位条件对香港的土地利用规划有何种影响?内地其他城市如何借鉴香港的城市发展经验?文物保护的争议仍会延续吗?“香港2030+”如何为年轻人和下一代提供改善城市环境的愿景?香港回归20 周年专辑收集的6 篇文章,回顾了香港的土地、经济、环境、文化保育和城市更新等方面的内容,并尝试回答上述问题,以期为新型城市化背景下中国的城市转型和城镇化过程提供一定的参考和借鉴。


Abstract:

Hong Kong had been a British Colony from 1841-1997 and it was returned to China in 1997. Under the British influence administratively and with the dominant underlying Chinese culture in the city, the planning system, actual land use and living patterns over the years up to 1997 have been unique, interesting and in many ways quite a successful envy to many cities. The city has grown from a fishing village on a barren rock into a well-known international city with finance power. It has created most of its urban land by reclamation. It is famous for its most dense living but yet it has over 65% of its natural land preserved undeveloped. In the several decades leading to 1997, its housing price had always been among the top expensive cities in the world, but it did not worry many low income citizens as there are over 40% householders living in very cheap public subsidized rental housing. It is home of many world famous tycoons and richest persons on earth and yet there are scenes of people living in unbelievable cramped space and cages and of undesirable living conditions of underprivileged groups, especially the elderly. With 20 years passed since 1997, it is be apt to review the land use planning and urban development in Hong Kong to see how matters related to land use have changed. Whether any theories or observations can be drawn from the 20 years’ experiences for us to embrace or question the urban development approach adopted under the British rule. By living in close connection with mainland China in the last 20 years, what are the impacts on Hong Kong’s land use planning? What Hong Kong and inland cities can learn from each other? Conservation of built heritage, mainly of British legacy, has been a focus for hot debates, and the pride for promoting local culture have brought with them political controversies. Are these related to the transition from British rule to the reunion with China? Have the young generation developed a new aspiration on the urban planning and living condition for years of 2030+? This editorial piece provides a general overall view of the topic “Hong Kong: Compact and Vibrant Urban Development Approach” to deliver a special issue of this journal to commemorate the 20th year of return of the Hong Kong sovereignty to China. Under the theme of this editorial, there are six articles from authors of diverse backgrounds. We hope readers, through digesting these papers and appreciating them in the historical and political context of Hong Kong, could find answers to the above questions and formulate their views contributing to the better urban planning for the good future of Hong Kong.


版权信息:
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费(17lgy39)、广东省体育局科研课题(GDSS2016008)、中国博士后科学基金会(2017M610524)
作者简介:

陈汉云,博士,香港理工大学建筑与环境学院,教授,博导。bsedchan@polyu.edu.hk

陈婷婷(通信作者),博士,中山大学地理科学与规划学院城市与区域规划系,副研究员;香港理工大学建筑与房地产系,高级研究助理。chentt53@mail.sysu.edu.cn


译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 张丽. 20 世纪上半期香港社会结构分层研究[M]. 北京: 社会科学文献出版社, 2002.

    [2] Zhang X Q. High-rise and High-density Compact Urban Form: The Development of Hong Kong[C] //Burgess R, Jenks M, eds. Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries[M]. Routledge, 2002: 245-254.

    [3] 黄良会, 叶嘉安. 保持城市交通畅通—香港城市交通管理[M]. 北京: 中国建筑工业出版社, 1996.

    [4] Yeh A G. Economic Restructuring and Land Use Planning in Hong Kong[J]. Land Use Policy 1997, 14(1): 25-39.

    [5] Yeh A G, Ng M K. The Changing Role of the State in High-tech Industrial Development: The Experience of Hong Kong[J]. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. 1994, 12(4): 449-72.

    [6] 赵进. 香港公营房屋建设及其启示[J]. 国际城市规划, 2010, 25(3): 97-104.

    [7] 冯宜萱. 以可持续规划缔造公营房屋优质居住环境: 香港房屋委员会的经验[J]. 国际城市规划, 2013(1): 30-36.

    [8] 郑捷奋, 刘洪玉. 香港轨道交通与土地资源的综合开发[J]. 中国铁道科学, 2002, 23(5): 1-5.

    [9] 费移山, 王建国. 高密度城市形态与城市交通——以香港城市发展为例[J]. 新建筑, 2004(5): 6-8.

    [10] Lau S S Y, Giridharan R, Ganesan S. Multiple and Intensive Land Use: Case Studies in Hong Kong [J]. Habitat International, 2005, 29(3): 527-546.

    [11] 黄观贵. 香港自然保育的现况与前瞻[J]. 地理学报,1997 (S1): 152-160.

    [12] 陈弘志, 张安. 从香港郊野自然保育看景观政策的概念框架[J]. 风景园林, 2016(1): 126-130.

    [13] 魏成, 李骁, 赖亚妮. 进退维谷——香港公营房屋政策的困境与挑战[J]. 国际城市规划, 2016, 31(4): 64-71.

    [14] Hui E C M, Yu K H. Commuting Patterns of Residents Within a High-density Urban Development: A Study of Hong Kong [J]. Habitat International, 2013, 39: 201-213.

    [15] 李嘉莉, 陈汉云. 影响高密度城市的城市更新因素——以香港为例[J]. 城市观察, 2011(2): 46-59.

    [16] 陶希东. 新时期香港城市更新的政策经验及启示[J]. 城市发展研究, 2016, 23(2): 39-45.

    [17] 陈晨. 1965 年以来香港公共交通发展与运输政策演进[J]. 国际城市规划, 2011(2): 67-73.

    [18] Yeh A G, Xu, J, eds. China’s Pan-Pearl River Delta: Regional Cooperation and Development[M]. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.

    [19] 徐江. 香港与珠江三角洲空间关系的转变[J]. 国际城市规划, 2008, 23(1): 70-78.

    [20] 卢柯. 加强重点地区控规编制的前期规划研究——香港落马洲河套地区规划研究案例借鉴[J]. 上海城市规划, 2015, 6(6): 61-66.

    [21] Sun L, Zhu D, Chan E H W. Public Participation Impact on Environment NIMBY Conflict and Environmental Conflict Management: Comparative Analysis in Shanghai and Hong Kong[J]. Land Use Policy, 2016, 58, 208-217.

    [22] Ng E, Yuan C, Chen L, Ren C, et al. Improving the Wind Environment in High-density Cities by Understanding Urban Morphology and Surface Roughness: A Study in Hong Kong [J]. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2011, 101(1): 59-74.

    [23] 郑颖生, 史源, 任超, 等. 改善高密度城市区域通风的城市形态优化策略研究——以香港新界大埔墟为例[J]. 国际城市规划, 2016, 31(5): 68-75.

    [24] Cerin E, Macfarlane D J, Ko H H, et al. Measuring Perceived Neighbourhood Walkability in Hong Kong [J]. Cities, 2007, 24(3): 209-217.

    [25] Fung W M. Infill as Catalyst for Vivid Urban Fabric Formation - A Study on Increasing Walk-ability in Hong Kong [J]. Urban Design International, 2012, 17(1): 18-32.

    [26] Tian Y H, Jim C Y. Factors Influencing the Spatial Pattern of Sky Gardens in the Compact City of Hong Kong [J]. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2011, 101(4): 299-309.

    [27] Xue C Q L, Ma L M, Hui K C. Indoor ‘Public’ Space: A Study of Atria in Mass Transit Railway (MTR) Complexes of Hong Kong [J]. Urban Design International, 2012, 17(2): 87-105.

    [28] Yung E H K, Conejos S, Chan E H W. Public Open Spaces Planning for the Elderly: The Case of Dense Urban Renewal Districts in Hong Kong [J]. Land Use Policy, 2016, 59: 1-11.

    [29] Song Y. Vibrant Downtowns: Can Vibrancy Explain Variations in Downtown Property Performance?[R]. Working Paper, 2014.

    [30] 香港发展局, 香港规划署, 规划宜居的高密度城市[OL/R]. 2016. http://www.hk2030plus.hk/tc/building.asp?form=71.

    [31] Wirth L. Urbanism as A Way of Life[J]. The American Journal of Sociology, 1938, 44 (1): 1-24.

    [32] Battencourt L, West G. A Unified Theory of Urban Living[J]. Nature, 2010, 467: 912-913.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

2730538