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2017年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.126
探索传统人类聚居的生态智慧——以世界文化遗产区都江堰灌区为例
Exploring Ecological Wisdom of Traditional Human Settlements in a World Cultural Heritage Area: A Case Study of Dujiangyan Irrigation Area, Sichuan Province, China

颜文涛 象伟宁 袁琳

Yan Wentao, Xiang Weining, Yuan Lin

关键词:世界文化遗产区;人类聚居;生态智慧;协同进化;都江堰灌区

Keywords:World Heritage Area; Human Settlements; Ecological Wisdom; Synergetic Evolution; Dujiangyan Irrigation Area

摘要:

以世界文化遗产区的都江堰灌区为研究对象,采用历史比较法,研究人类聚居生态智慧的演变规律。研究表明,都江堰灌区不同发展阶段的人—水关系体现了人与自然的关系模式,对人类聚居起到关键的作用;在都江堰水利工程建设前、建设时期、发展时期及近现代时期四个阶段,“天府之国”的人与自然关系模式显示出顺从自然、尊重自然、改造自然、征服自然的四次转变;从道生万物的整体观、道法自然的实践观、兼利天下的社会观、以道驭术的伦理观、自发秩序的善治思想等五个方面,揭示了“天府之国”社会和自然系统和谐共存的深层生态智慧。上述生态智慧对当代城乡可持续发展与规划实践的若干启示为:自然与社会系统的协同关系将有助于促进人类聚居的可持续性;自然引导下的人类聚居实践能够支撑生命支持系统;应通过规划实践维持或重构健康的自然过程;融合环境管理单元和规划发展单元,形成聚居模块单元,有助于形成基于模块单元的富有活力的健康自治管理模式;在城市规划领域引入环境伦理观,可以指导规划价值选择与规划制度革新;可持续的人居环境模式应该是社会与自然系统相互协作、理性包容、适度冗余、有序增长的协同进化模式。

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, the relationship between human and nature has not improved in line with technological and social innovations. In this paper, Dujiangyan irrigation area in the Chengdu Plain is selected as study subject. Historical comparative method is adopted to study the evolvement rule of ecological wisdom of human settlements. The results indicate that natural processes played a crucial role in determining human settlements in Dujiangyan irrigation area. Relationship between human and nature in these four phases reflects the transition from submission to nature through respect for nature, reconstruction of nature, and finally to the conquest of nature, respectively in the pre-construction period, original construction period, development period and modern period. The wisdom of the harmonious coexistence between social and natural systems has been revealed from the five aspects of the holistic view of Dao-Sheng-Wan-Wu (everything from the Tao), the practice view of Dao-Fa-Zi-Ran (following nature’s lead), the social view of sharing benefits across, the ethical view of Tao controls technology, and the good governance view of spontaneous order. Lastly, this paper points out several principles of landscape and urban planning in the presence of deep urban sustainability challenges: Coevolution of natural and social systems would help promote sustainability of human settlements; nature-guided human settlement practice can maintain various healthy life-support systems; maintain or reconstruct healthy natural process through planning practice; modular units should be constructed through integrating environmental management units with planned unit development; selfgovernance organizations could be fostered likely based on modular units; and finally but not lastly, some technology application should be subject to restriction of environmental ethics.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0505705),国家自然科学基金面上项目(51278504),教育部人文社科基金(15YJCZH215),亚热带建筑科学国 家重点实验室开放课题(2017ZB03)共同资助
作者简介:

颜文涛(通信作者),同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室,教授;同济大学建筑与城市规划学院生态智慧与生态实践研究中心副主任。yanwt@tongji.edu.cn

象伟宁,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院生态智慧与生态实践研究中心,主任;美国北卡罗莱纳大学夏洛特分校,教授。wnxiang@tongji.edu.cn

袁琳,清华大学建筑学院,助理教授;华南理工大学亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室。yuanlin2016@tsinghua.edu.cn


译者简介:

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