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2017年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.137
生态实践智慧与可实践生态知识
Ecophronesis and Actionable Ecological Knowledge

王志芳

Wang Zhifang

关键词:生态实践智慧;生态规划设计;景观研究;景观规划设计

Keywords:Ecophronesis; Ecological Planning and Design; Landscape Research; Landscape Planning and Design

摘要:

生态知识与生态科研已经很多,但尚未能有效用于景观实践应用(规划、设计以及管理等)。本文着眼于生态科研与景观生态实践在“解构”与“整体”上的根本差别,重点探讨基于生态实践智慧视角的“可实践生态知识”。本文将“可实践生态知识”界定为能够在实际操作中有针对性地解决特定场所永续发展问题的相关知识,它涵盖问题、动机以及方法三个层面,既可以来源于场地研究的实证知识,也有赖于过往实践的经验以及基于生态理论与科研的归类知识。以可实践生态知识为基础,生态实践智慧可以被认为是在场地问题、利益相关者动机以及相关方法之间寻求平衡,巧妙结合可实践生态知识实现永续发展的决策能力。容错和灵感是生态实践智慧的核心特征,生态智慧实践就是凭借灵感以及临场应对能力利用可实践生态知识不断容错的渐进过程。生态实践智慧开始于直面不完美,很多生态问题与伦理无关,与欲望有关;与知识无关,与行为有关。


Abstract:

Ecological knowledge and research are abundant, but never efficiently applied in landscape practices (planning, design and management). This paper addresses the fundamental differences between “deconstructed” ecological studies and “holistic” landscape practices, and then explores actionable ecological knowledge from the perspective of ecophronesis. Actionable ecological knowledge is defined as relative knowledge that can specifically solve sustainable development of certain places, which covers three key aspects including problems, intentions and methods. Actionable ecological knowledge can arise from empirical knowledge based on site investigation, or experimental knowledge from precedents of practices or reclassified knowledge from ecological theories and studies. Based on actionable ecological knowledge, ecophronesis can be considered as a strategic balance among site problems, stakeholder intentions and relevant methods, as well as a tactical process to incorporate actionable ecological knowledge into sustainable decision making. The key characteristics of ecophronesis are about safe to fail and on-site inspiration. The formulation of ecophronesis is a progressive procedure in utilizing actionable ecological knowledge based on on-site inspiration for safe to fail experiments. Ecophronesis starts from imperfectness. Many ecological problems are caused by not ethnics but desires, not knowledge but behaviors.


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作者简介:

王志芳,博士,北京大学建筑与景观设计学院副教授。zhifangw@pku.edu.cn


译者简介:

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