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全文下载次数:1075
2017年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2016.381
墨西哥的城镇化与“去中心化”趋势
A Study of the Urban System and the Decentralization in Mexico

贾静 张强

Jia Jing, Zhang Qiang

关键词:墨西哥;城镇体系;去中心化;城市化进程

Keywords:Mexico; Urban System; Decentralization ; Urbanization Process

摘要:

墨西哥的城镇体系分级有别于世界上其他发展中国家,是在其独特的历史、社会背景下形成的。在动荡的20 世纪,墨西哥呈现出从单一城市中心占主导的城市体系发展为多中心次城市体系的格局。城市空间结构经历了集聚—疏散—多中心格局的演变,再次聚集的过程中,形成“周边功能区”式的圈层结构。该空间结构发展战略和卫星城的建设,疏散了墨西哥城和其他城市的都市区功能,同时加强了城郊间的联动功能。周边地区以其距离上的优势和影响力、充足的就业岗位、平等的发展机会及均等化的公共服务体系,承担起支持中心城发展、都市副功能区的重任。而这种演变有利于提高工业、技术、信息、人才的流通及传播。以大都市区墨西哥城为例,形成与经济发展阶段变化相适应的 “去中心化”发展模式,通过行政资源、社会公共产品和服务的均衡分布以及人口迁移的地域性变化,削弱了主要大城市的“资源中心”地位,促进了地区平衡,带动了地区之间福祉差距的缩小。墨西哥政府在城市治理及空间政策方面采取的措施一定程度上缓解了社会不均衡问题的负面影响,其中的原因值得学术界深入探讨。


Abstract:

Mexico’s urban system, formed under its unique historical and social background, is different from other developing countries in the world. In the turmoil of the twentieth century, Mexico’s urban system has evolved from a megacity-centered pattern to a multi-center one. Its urban spatial structure went through three stages of development, namely, urban centralization, urban decentralization and formation of multiple centers. In the last stage, a ring structure has come into shape with large cities encircled by surrouding functional areas. In developing such a spatial structure and building satellite cities and towns, megacities such as the Mexico city and others have managed to decentralize their urban functions and at the same time strengthen the linkage with their suburbs. And surrounding areas of large cities, with their advantages in terms of distance, their sufficient job opportunities, and adequate and equal access to public service, also play an important role in the development of large cities. This urban ring structure is conducive to the flow of industries, technology, and talents as well as the dissemination of information and knowledge. Take the metropolitan area of Mexico City as an example. Decentralization, with more even distribution of administrative resources, public products and services as well as labor force in the region, is in sync with its stage of development, weakens its role as the the resource center and promotes regional balance. Measures taken by the Mexican government in urban governance and spatial policy have worked to partly alleviate the negative impact of social inequality, and it is worthy of further academic investigation.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目“城乡一体化的国际经验及中国道路研究”(14BJL061)
作者简介:

贾静,硕士,北京第二外国语学院讲师,西班牙语教研室主任。elisa1985@163.com

张强,首都经济贸易大学教授,博士生导师。zhq538@263.net


译者简介:

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