点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:199
2017年第6期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.029
全球城市公共服务设施的公平供给和规划配置方法研究——以纽约、伦敦、东京为例
Research on Equal Supply and Planning of Global Cities’ Public Service Facilities: Case Studies on New York, London and Tokyo

张敏

Zhang Min

关键词:全球城市;公共服务设施;公平供给

Keywords:Global Cities; Public Service Facilities;Equal Supply

摘要:

基于对纽约、伦敦、东京的最新规划和相关政策解读,本文总结了全球城市在公共服务设施的规划导向、分类分级和供给机制等方面的特征。本文认为,要提升公共服务设施供给的社会公平性,应当注重设施配置与不同社会群体需求在空间、时间这两个维度的匹配,并且通过设施的有效运营来提升可达性的公平度,最终迈向公平供给公共服务的目标。具体应从顶层设计引入公平供给的导向,在技术准则的分类分级中关注弱势群体,在规划和供给层面打开由下至上的事权和财权通道,在评估和更新层面注重动态调整,在运营和维护方面探索与非政府力量的合作机制。

Abstract:

From latest master plans and related policies of the first-tier global cities including New York, London and Tokyo, this paper reviews the planning guidance, classification system and supply mechanism of public service facility supply of those cities. The paper proposes two directions of promoting social equity in public service facilities supply. On one side, the consistency between supply and demand on both spatial and temporal dimensions should be enhanced; on the other side, the efficiency of facility’s operation should be increased. Some specific measures are as follows: firstly, equity should be emphysized in a ctiy’s top-level design such as a master plan or a strategy plan; secondly, higher importance should be attached to deprived groups in the classification system of public service facilities; thirdly, the fiscal rights related to public service facilities of bottom governmental body should be enhanced; fourthly, dynamic evaluation and adjustment mechanism of public service facilities should be built; finally, partnership with nongovernment bodies in operation and maintenance of facilities should be established.

版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

张敏,硕士,上海市城市规划设计研究院,规划师

译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 张京祥, 葛志兵,罗震东,等. 城乡基本公共服务设施布局均等化研究——以常州市教育设施为例[J]. 城市规划, 2012(2): 9-15.
    [2] 罗震东, 韦江绿,张京祥. 城乡基本公共服务设施均等化发展的界定、特征与途径[J]. 现代城市研究, 2011(7): 7-13.
    [3] 顾鸣东, 尹海伟. 公共设施空间可达性与公平性研究概述[J]. 城市问题, 2010(5): 25-29.
    [4] 高军波, 周春山,叶昌东. 广州城市公共服务设施分布的空间公平研究[J]. 规划师, 2010(4): 12-18.
    [5] Mayor of New York. One New York: The Plan for a Strong and Just City[R]. New York: City of New York, 2015.
    [6] Mayor of London. The London Plan: Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London[R]. London: London City Hall, 2011.
    [7] 东京都政府. 创造未来——东京都长期展望[R]. 东京: 东京都政府, 2014.
    [8] 汪来杰. 西方国家公共服务的变化:轨迹与特征[J]. 社会主义研究, 2007(6): 89-92.
    [9] 江海燕, 周春山,高军波. 西方城市公共服务空间分布的公平性研究进展[J]. 城市规划, 2011(7): 72-77.
    [10] Cho Chun Man. Study on Effects of Resident-perceived Neighborhood Boundaries on Public Services Accessibility and Its Relation to Utilization
    Using Geographic Information System, Focusing on the Case of Public Parks in Austin, Texas[D]. Texas: Texas A&M University, 2003.
    [11] 汪来杰. 西方国家公共服务的变化:轨迹与特征[J]. 社会主义研究, 2007(6): 89-92.
    [12] Talen E. Visualizing Fairness: Equity Maps for Planners[J]. Journal of the American Planning Association, 1998, 64(1): 22-38.
    [13] Scott D, Jackson E L. Factors that Limit and Strategies that might Encourage People’s Use of Public Parks[J].Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 1996, 14(1): 1-17.
    [14] 顾丽梅. 新公共服务理论及其对我国公共服务改革之启示[J]. 南京社会科学, 2005(1): 38-45.
    [15] 顾丽梅. 英、美、新加坡公共服务模式比较研究——理论、模式及其变迁[J]. 浙江学刊, 2008(5): 107-112.
    [16] London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Infrastructure Delivery Plan Final Report[R]. London: London Borough of Tower Hamlets, 2009.
    [17] New York City Planning Commission. Criteria for the Location of City Facilities[R]. New York: New York City Planning Commission, 1990.
    [18] City of New York. Community District Needs for the Borough of the Bronx[R]. New York: City of New York, 2012.
    [19] 费彦, 林毅. 城市居住区公共服务设施研究——以广州为例[M]. 北京: 清华大学出版社, 2014.
    [20] Michalos A C, Zumbo B D. Public Services and the Quality of Life[J]. Social Indicators Research, 1999, 48(2): 125-157.
    [21] Michael R. Bloomberg, Citywide Statement of Needs for City Facilities/Fiscal Years 2015 and 2016[R]. New York: City of New York, 2014.
    [22] 谭纵波. 从中央集权走向地方分权——日本城市规划事权的演变与启示[J]. 国际城市规划, 2008(2): 26-31.
    [23] 雷芸, 任莅棣. 私营企业参与背景下的日本都市公园管理体制及启示[J]. 中国园林, 2014(7): 43-47.
    [24] M K Henderson. Urban Service Delivery in Developing Countries Escaping Western Bureaucratic Solutions[J]. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 2001, 14(4): 327-340.

《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

2565069