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2018年第3期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2018.026
加州奥兰治县低影响开发:实施和评估中的挑战与对策
Implementation of Low Impact Development in Orange County, California: Challenges and Solutions in Implementation and Assessment of Progress

克里斯·克朗普顿 彭舰 丹尼尔·阿普特 马克·格雷

Chris Crompton, Peng Jian, Daniel Apt, Mark Grey

关键词:低影响开发;奥兰治县;实施;评估

Keywords:Low Impact Development; Orange County; Implementation; Assessment

摘要:

本文首先介绍美国加利福尼亚州奥兰治县从严重破坏自然溪流形态、栖息地和水质的粗放发展方式,转向平衡城市开发前后水文特征和自然环境的低影响开发历程;然后总结奥兰治县在实施和评估低影响开发绩效方面的逻辑框架和创新方法。奥兰治县通过参与区域低影响开发项目评估研究、制定低影响发展指导文件、创造评估低影响开发性能的系统框架,将低影响开发的实施和评估标准化,而在低影响开发受限区域则利用水质信贷交易建立替代性项目。本文通过对两个实际案例(格拉塞尔园区评估项目和莱格西园区水质交易项目)的分析,认为低影响开发设计前的场地调查、模拟和监测工作,实施后的标准化监测和数据共享,以及灵活的水质交易机制是低影响开发项目成功的关键。奥兰治县经验可为中国城市进行低影响开发实施和评估提供方法借鉴。

Abstract:

This paper discusses Orange County’s transition from a conventional urban development approach that resulted in significant damages to natural stream morphology, habitat, and water quality to a more balanced approach that attempts to balance predevelopment and post-development hydrology to protect these resources. It then summarizes the framework and innovative approaches being undertaken to implement and assess the Low Impact Development (LID) in Orange County. Participating in the regional study to understand the effectiveness of LID, Orange County has developed guidance documents and created a systematic framework to assess the LID performance. These are aimed to standardize the LID approaches and develop alternative compliance program through water quality credit trading in the LID-restricted areas. Through two case studies, Glassell Campus Stormwater LID Retrofit Project and Legacy Campus Water Quality Credit Trading Program, we find out key factors to the success of LID implementation include: the site survey, modeling, and monitoring prior to the project design; the post-project standard monitoring and data sharing; and the flexible water quality credit trading system. China can potentially learn from Orange County’s experiences for its implementation and assessment of LID.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41501169)
作者简介:

克里斯·克朗普顿(通信作者),奥兰治县环境资源局水质达标处处长。chris.crompton@ocpw.ocgov.com
彭舰,博士,奥兰治县环境资源局水质规划部主任
丹尼尔· 阿普特,奥拉努(Olaunu)公司总裁
马克·格雷,博士,南加州建筑商联合会环境总监

译者简介:

李雅,天津大学建筑学院博士研究生,华盛顿大学景观建筑系联合培养博士研究生。liya@tju.edu.cn

参考文献:
  • [1] Prince George’s County. Low Impact Development Design Strategies an Integrated Design Approach[R]. 1999.
    [2] County of Orange. Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for the Preparation of Conceptual/Preliminary and/or Project Water Quality Management Plans (WQMPs)[R]. 2011.
    [3] County of Orange. Model Water Quality Management Plan[R]. 2011.
    [4] County of Orange. Hydromodification Guidance[R]. 2011 & 2013.
    [5] Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition. California LID Evaluation and Analysis Network (SMC CLEAN) Standard LID Project Data-Information List[R]. 2016.
    [6] Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition. California LID Evaluation and Analysis Network (SMC CLEAN) Standard LID Monitoring Protocol[R]. 2017.
    [7] Southern California Stormwater Monitoring Coalition. Low Impact Development Manual for Southern California[R]. 2010.
    [8] OC Public Works. Glassell Campus LID[DB/OL]. 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dEUJsMiFJo.
    [9] County of San Diego. Water Quality Equivalency Document[R]. 2015.

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