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2018年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.413
1950代以来美国城市更新政策工具的演化与规律特征
The Evolution and the Features of Urban Renewal Policy Instruments in the USA Since the 1950s

姚之浩 曾海鹰

Yao Zhihao, Zeng Haiying

关键词:城市更新;政策工具;税收融资;土地调控;发展管理

Keywords:Urban Renewal; Policy Tools; Tax and Financing; Land Use Regulation; Development Management

摘要:

美国的城市更新起源于20 世纪初的贫民窟清理,随着城市蔓延以及内城衰败等问题的加剧,城市更新从单一的贫民窟清理、消除破败转向经济、社会、环境等多目标的综合治理。1950 年代以来,与城市更新密切相关的政策工具主要来自税收融资、土地调控和发展管理三方面。通过文献研究,本文重点剖析了这些政策工具的内涵与演变,进而发现在市场化和分权化的制度背景下,城市更新的思潮变化推进了政策工具的创设与更替;城市更新政策工具的实施在响应地方经济发展需要的同时,试图兼顾私有产权保护和社会公平的实现;但也存在市场化的运作方式导致政策目标偏离的问题。我国城市更新受制于传统物质规划思维和城市建设管理部门权力的分割,缺乏连续性、系统性的政策工具供给,导致完美的空间更新方案难以转变为实施蓝图。借鉴国际经验,创设、整合实施政策工具是城市更新面临的重要议题。

Abstract:

Urban renewal in the USA derived from slum clearance movement in the early 20th century under the background of urban sprawl and inner city blight, and had shifted its target from slum clearance and blight area elimination to economy revitalization, and has been a kind of comprehensive public policy in the field of urban governance since 1950s. During the institutional transition of marketization and decentralization, ideology change of urban renewal promotes the establishment and replacement of policy tools. Renewal policy instruments try to response the demands of local economic development and try to protect private property right and social justice, however, confronts policy objective deviation under the marketization operation. Urban renewal in China is in short of supply of continuous and systematic policy instruments, subject to the traditional material planning paradigm and power division of urban construction and management, resulting in the failure of implementation of ideal spatial scheme. This paper aims to explore the regularity elements behind the evolution of urban renewal policy instruments from the perspective of tax and financing, land use regulation and development management and provides learning experience and enlightenment to urban renewal  ractice in contemporary China.

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作者简介:

姚之浩,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,博士研究生;北卡罗莱纳大学教堂山分校访问学者。yaozhihao_1984@163.com
曾海鹰(通信作者),博士,贵州大学经济学院,教授;北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校区域与城市研究中心,研究员。724270085@qq.com

译者简介:

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