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2018年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.412
从“永久清理”到“全局规划” —— 美国棕地治理策略演变及对我国的启示
From “Permanent Cleanup” to “Area-wide Planning”: Evolution of American Brownfield Governance Strategy and Its Enlightenment to China

高洁 刘畅 陈天

Gao Jie, Liu Chang, Chen Tian

关键词:棕地治理;责任认定;财税激励;公众参与

Keywords:Brownfield Revitalization; Brownfield Liability; Financial and Tax Initiatives; Public Participation

摘要:

采用美国环保局相关棕地数据及文献资料,分析美国棕地问题兴起背景及其治理历程。大致可以分为行政理性阶段、经济理性阶段、环境公正阶段及调整阶段三个阶段,逐渐实现棕地治理从“永久清理”向“全局规划”的转变,有效地协调了棕地治理中基于可持续发展的生态效益和基于土地再开发的经济社会效益。美国公共行政角色的转变、对棕地内涵理解的升级以及治理政策的细化是促其转变的重要因素。演化特征表现为联邦与州及地方政府的权利变更,以及从惩罚性的监管框架向强调公平、奖励及社区利益的合作框架的转变。责任认定模式、财税激励模式以及公共参与模式是棕地治理中的关键因素模式。平衡全局的风险管理和责任认定机制、兼顾公平的多元可持续融资机制以及面向实施的公众利益表述平台为我国棕地治理提供了可借鉴的经验和思路。

Abstract:

This paper examines changes in US brownfield policies and programs, and analyzes their periodic characteristics since the Superfund program was introduced in 1980. Data is gathered from the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s web-based documents and related literature. Three periods are identified: environmental protection, remediation and reuse, and comprehensive planning. The transition from “Permanent Cleanup” to “Areawide Planning” is gradually realized, which effectively coordinates the ecological benefits from sustainable development with the economic and social benefits from land redevelopment. Changes in the rights of federal and state government as well as the transition from a punitive regulatory framework to a cooperation regulatory framework are two main features. Changes in the role of American public administration, upgrading of connotation of brownfield and refinement of governance policy are proved to be key factors to contribute the transition. The risk-based governance and overall-balanced liability recognition mechanisms, the multiple sustainable financing mechanisms with fairness in consideration, and the public interest  tatement platform to be implemented can provide the referential experience and ideology for brownfield governance in China.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目《基于物理环境模拟的中高密度绿色住区规划原理与方法》(51578366),教育部社科基金重大项目《我国特大城市旧城区的生态化改造策略》(15JZD025)
作者简介:

高洁,博士,北京交通大学建筑与艺术学院,讲师
刘畅,硕士,中国城市规划设计研究院,城市规划师
陈天,博士,天津大学建筑学院,教授

译者简介:

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