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2018年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.414
从新城市主义到形态控制准则 —— 美国城市地块形态控制理念与工具发展及启示
From New Urbanism to Form-based Code – Lessons Learnt from the US Experience of Block Shape Control Concepts and Tools

章征涛 宋彦 丁国胜 李志明

Zhang Zhengtao, Song Yan, Ding Guosheng, Li Zhiming

关键词:城市地块形态控制工具;新城市主义; 形态控制准则

Keywords:Urban Block Shape Control Tool; New Urbanism; Form-based Code

摘要:

城市蔓延是美国规划界急需解决的问题。针对城市无序蔓延带来的一系列城市形态问题,美国规划师们向物质空间设计层面回归,先后提出新城市主义、精明准则、形态控制准则等城市形态控制理念和工具。其中形态控制准则是针对城市地块形态控制的工具。本文对美国城市形态控制与调整工具的发展脉络以及相互联系进行分析;对形态控制准则进行详细阐述;最后,针对当前我国城市蔓延问题初显,及在城市形态控制工具不足等矛盾下,从发展理念、操作工具及行业发展三个层面提出建议。

Abstract:

Urban sprawl is a challenge faced by the planning field in the US. To confront with a range of issues associated with sprawling urban form brought by urban sprawl, planners in the US have retreated to design tools of the physical environment and initiated concepts such as new urbanism, smart codes, and formbased codes, which is the tool to shape urban form at the site level. The article first describes the evolving trend of urban form tools, illustrates in detail the form-based codes, and lastly, provides policy suggestions to urban form tool in China from three perspectives including concepts, implementation and the development of the planning field.

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基金项目:
作者简介:

章征涛,博士,注册城市规划师;珠海市规划设计研究院政府规划与城市设计研究中心,副主任;高级规划师
宋彦(通信作者),深圳大学城市规划系,教授;美国北卡罗来纳大学城市规划系,终身教授;国际中国规划学会(IACP)第七届(2017—2019)主席
丁国胜,博士,湖南大学建筑学院助理教授,硕士生导师,健康城市研究室主任
李志明,博士,南京林业大学城市规划系系主任,副教授

译者简介:

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