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2018年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2016.136
基于比较视角的美国、英国及日本城市社区治理模式研究
The Urban Community Governance Modes in the USA, the UK, and Japan: A Comparative Perspective

边防 吕斌

Bian Fang, Lyu Bin

关键词:社区治理;社区发展;比较研究;公众参与;非政府组织

Keywords:Community Governance; Community Development; Comparative Analysis; Public Participation; Non-Governmental Organization

摘要:

社区作为城市基本空间单元,是城市治理工作的重要组成部分。本文基于比较视角,系统梳理和分析美国、英国及日本城市社区治理发展历程和模式,通过分析不同国家城市社区治理发展背景、治理目标、治理参与主体以及组织方式来比较其中异同。与此同时,本文通过分析和评估美国、英国、日本城市社区治理绩效,即不同国家在所处特定阶段治理目标和政策实施效果之间的差别来更好地厘清不同城市社区治理模式的特征和差异。其中,第三方力量的崛起为美国社区治理带来生机;英国治理模式则具有较强政策驱动性;日本则更依赖其较高的社区居民自治能力。同时,美国、英国和日本社区治理具有一定共性。例如,政府和社区关系相对分离;公私部门互动合作较为紧密;居民参与意识及水平普遍较高;社区治理具有较强政策和资金支持。文章通过对中国社区发展阶段的反思,提出在引入和借鉴国外模式需要将“政府与社区关系”、“第三方组织参与程度”以及“居民自治能力”三个要素纳入考虑范围,同时,需要因地制宜地培育符合自身发展诉求的社区治理模式。

Abstract:

Community is a critical spatial unit of the urban nexus, and has always been the key issue within urban policy-making process. This paper aims to investigate the developmental trajectories of community governance in the United State, the United Kingdom, and Japan so to shed lights on the community building in contemporary urban China. By examining the similarities and differences of the contexts, objectives, the key players as well as the organizational arrangements of the different modes in the three countries, the particularities of each community governance modes could be further identified. More specifically, the rising of the third-party has been the great engine behind the community governance development in the US; community governance in the UK is rather policy-driven; whereas the community governance in Japan substantially relies on its mature community autonomy. Additionally, numerous similarities also manifest, such as the relatively detached government-community relationships, the intensive interactions between the public and private sectors, enhancements of citizen’s involvement as well as the consecutive financial and policy inputs. Considering the phase of China’s urban community development, this paper argues that the adoption of foreign modes need adaptations. The relationships between government and community, the degree of engagement of the third party, as well as the self-governance capacity shall be tackled comprehensively. Furthermore, local communities should develop suitable governance modes based on their objective demands simultaneously.

版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

边防,香港大学建筑学院城市规划与设计系,博士研究生。chrisbianpku@gmail.com
吕斌,北京大学城市与环境学院,教授,博士生导师。binlu@pku.edu.cn

译者简介:

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