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2018年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2018.328
中小城市是非洲可持续发展成败的关键
Small and Intermediary Cities Will Make or Break the Sustainable Development Goals in Africa

亚瑟· 敏赛特

Arthur Minsat

关键词:非洲城镇化;工业化; 中阶城市;可持续发展; 区域发展;可持续发展目标; 多层次治理;产业集群

Keywords:African Urbanisation; Industrialisation; Intermediary Cities; Sustainable Development; Regional Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Multi-level Governance; Clusters

摘要:

非洲城镇化主要发生在中小城市。居民低于30 万的小城市的增长占到近期城市增长的58%。这种增长势头会加速,至2030 年,非洲的城市人口将增加一倍以上,达到8.24 亿人。少于100 万居民的城市对这一增长的贡献将达77%。

如此大规模的人口聚集可能会影响到非洲可持续发展目标的成败。

·城乡之间的强力联系为提高产能和减贫提供了巨大潜力。

·如果没有合理的计划,快速城镇化将导致高昂的经济、社会和环境成本。约62% 的非洲城市人口可能已经生活在非正式居民点内。非洲治理空气污染花费了4 470 亿美元,占其GDP 的1/3,这还是在非洲尚未工业化的情况下。而较小的城市并不具备应对这些挑战的能力,每年在治理污染方面花费不到人均1 美元。55 个非洲国家可划分为5个主要类型来显示非洲大陆的多样性。每个群体中的中阶城市可以发挥特定作用,以实现可持续发展目标和非洲联盟设定的“2063 年议程”。

如今,只有约16 个非洲国家有国家城镇化战略,且只有不到10 个国家了解中阶城市为国家发展所能贡献的潜能。在众多需要采取的行动中,开展有效的多层次治理改革将有助于中阶城市的可持续发展,并实现“可持续发展目标11”。


Abstract:

Africa’s urbanisation is mainly taking place in small and intermediary cities. Cities with less than 300 000 residents captured 58% of recent urban growth. Ongoing trends are accelerating: Africa’s urban population will more than double, reaching 824 million by 2030. Cities with less than 1 million inhabitants will capture 77% of that growth.

Such massive peopling of the continent could make or break the SDGs in Africa:

· Strong rural-urban linkages offer big potential to increase productivity and reduce poverty.

· Unplanned urbanisation comes at high economic, social and environmental cost. About 62% of Africa’s urban population lives in informal settlements. Air pollution costs Africa USD 447 billion, a third of its GDP. Smaller cities are not equipped to face these challenges: most spend less than USD 1 per resident per year.

Distinguishing five main types among the fifty-five African countries reveals the diversity of the African continent. In each group, intermediary cities can advance the SDGs and the African Union’s Agenda 2063.

Today, only about sixteen African countries have a national urbanisation strategy. Less than ten identify the development potential intermediary cities can offer. Among the many actions needed, reforming multi-level governance will empower intermediary cities to achieve the SDG 11.


版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

亚瑟· 敏赛特,博士,经合组织发展中心,非洲、欧洲和中东部门主管。Arthur.MINSAT@oecd.org

译者简介:

曹康,浙江大学区域与城市规划系副教授。k_cao@126.com

刘梦琳,浙江大学区域与城市规划系研究生。407559200@qq.com

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