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2019年第2期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.049
中国大城市非正规就业职住空间失配及其规划问题初探
A Preliminary Study on the Job-Housing Spatial Mismatch of Informal Employment and Its Planning in China’s Big Cities

徐苗 陈瑞 杨碧波

Xu Miao, Chen Rui, Yang Bibo

关键词:非正规就业 ;保障房 ;城市规划干预 ;空间失配 ;职住关系

Keywords:Informal Employment; Affordable Housing; Urban Planning Intervention; Spatial Mismatch; Job-Housing Relationship

摘要:

非正规就业对国民经济、城镇就业的增长和城镇化进程有着巨大的推动和稳定作用,而城市规划实践与研究却并未给予非正规就业充分的关注,非正规就业与正规就业的模糊使得针对城市低收入人群的规划政策产生了偏离与盲区。本文采用抽样实证调查的方法探讨非正规就业者的职住空间特征以及规划政策对其通勤状况产生的影响。首先阐述了职住空间失配理论在非正规就业这一视角上的缺失 ;其次对非正规就业者的居住空间与就业空间分布进行理论回顾 ;最后,本文以低收入人群集中的两处保障房社区为例,利用 ArcGIS 平台对其中的非正规就业者搬迁前后的职住关系与通勤特征进行描述和分析。本文认为,非正规就业者相较于正规就业者通勤距离和时间均较短,高度依赖公共交通,表现出接近就业中心的职住偏好,而搬迁后非正规就业者通勤状况恶化,呈现出“空间失配”特征。实证结果表明在制定规划政策时要充分考虑到非正规就业者的职住关系特征与行为偏好,并运用相关的规划工具展开积极干预。上述结论有助于认知非正规就业者在职住偏好及决策上的特殊性和反思现有影响非正规就业者规划政策的局限与不足。

Abstract:

Informal employment plays a great role in promoting and stabilizing the national economy, urban employment growth and urbanization. However, urban planning practice and research have not given sufficient attention to informal employment. The blurring of informal employment and formal employment has led to planning policies for low-income urban populations that created deviations and blind spots. This paper investigates the occupational and residential space characteristics of informal employees and the impact of planning policies on their commuting status by means of sample empirical survey. It firstly expounds the lack of space mismatch hypothesis in the perspective of informal employment. Secondly, it makes a theoretical review of the living space and employment space distribution of informal workers. Finally, this paper takes two communities of low-income people in concentrated communities as examples, using the ArcGIS platform to describe and analyze the occupational and residential relationships and commuting characteristics before and after the relocation of informal workers. This paper argues that informal workers have shorter commuting distances and time than formal workers, who are highly dependent on public transportation, and show close to the employment center’s job-housing preference. After the relocation, the commuting situation of informal workers deteriorated, showing the characteristics of “spatial mismatch”. The empirical results show that in the formulation of planning policies, the characteristics of occupational residence and behavioral preferences of informal workers should be fully considered, and relevant planning tools should be used to actively intervene. These conclusions are helpful to recognize the particularity of informal employees’ preferences and decision-making and to reflect on the limitations and shortcomings of existing planning policies affecting informal employees.

版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

徐苗,重庆大学建筑城规学院副教授,城乡规划系副系主任,麻省理工学院高级城市研究中心(LCAU)访问学者
陈瑞,重庆大学建筑城规学院硕士研究生
杨碧波,注册城乡规划师,华夏幸福城市规划师

译者简介:

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