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2019年第2期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.203
从城市非正规性视角解读里约热内卢贫民窟的发展历程与治理经验
The Evolution and Governance of Slums in Rio de Janeiro from the Perspective of Urban Informality

李明烨 亚历克斯·马格尔哈斯

Li Mingye, Alex Magalhaes

关键词:城市非正规性 ;贫民窟 ;更新 ;包容性 ;软发展 ;里约热内卢

Keywords:Urban Informality; Slum; Renewal; Inclusivity; Soft Development; Rio de Janeiro

摘要:

本文从城市非正规性的角度对里约热内卢贫民窟的发展历程与政策演变进行梳理,进而分析了该地区在贫民窟治理方面的经验。总的来说,里约对贫民窟的政策从最初的消极无视,到强制拆除迁移,再到原地更新升级,正逐步向公平化和人性化的方向演变。尽管由于经济衰退、政治腐败,目前的治理政策陷入了低效的困境,但里约的案例体现了城市政府寻求城市非正规性在空间与制度层面合理定位的历程,在贫民窟的原地升级、制度包容以及“软发展”等方面,为我国城市应对和治理“城中村”等非正规性住房问题提供了启示。

Abstract:

From the perspective of urban informality, this paper reviews the development of slums in Rio de Janeiro and the evolution of related policies, then analyzes the experience of slums upgrading in this region. In general, the policy in Rio which has transformed from ignorance, to forced eviction and removal, and then to upgrading and renewal, is moving towards an equitable and human one. Although due to the economic recession and political corruption, the current policy is facing the problem of inefficiency, the case of Rio illustrates the process of the urban government seeking for an appropriate position of urban informality in the spatial and institutional dimensions, which provides implications for the renewal of “urban villages” in Chinese cities.

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作者简介:

李明烨,博士,法中建筑与城乡可持续发展研究院副主任。mingye.li@ifadur. com
亚历克斯·马格尔哈斯,里约热内卢联邦大学城市与区域规划研究院,副教授。
alexmagalhaes@ippur.ufrj.br

译者简介:

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