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2019年第3期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2018.166
城市的正义:西方“社会公正”思想的意识形态根源
Justice in City: Ideological Sources of the Western Social Justice Research

周恺 董丹梨 潘兰英

Zhou Kai, Dong Danli, Pan Lanying

关键词:社会公正;城乡规划;正义城市;城市权;空间正义

Keywords:Social Justice; Urban Planning; Just City; Right to the City; Spatial Justice

摘要:

“社会公正”问题进入我国城市规划学者视野后,在多种现实问题的折射下,已经成为城市话题讨论中的热点。事实上,对“公平”和“正义”的哲学思辨贯穿了中西方社会、经济和政治理论发展的整个历程,积累了厚重且影响深远的思想遗产。本文追溯了“公正”理论发展的三个思想源头:(新)自由主义、社群主义和(新)马克思主义,并从意识形态根源出发,梳理学者、立场和观点的视角差别和承继关系。一方面,自由主义者基于“道德个人主义”和“底线福利保障”所倡导的分配正义观,成为被全球化世界体系(包括中国)逐渐接受的“普世价值”;另一方面,研究者也试图将社会公正探讨从“解放个体自由”转向“发掘集体生活中的道德标准”。植根于传统家国伦理的社群主义思想在不断提醒个人主义者,不应脱离个体在群体中的“社群责任”“集体义务”“归属感”和“荣辱感”来谈公正价值观。“差异政治”学说进一步发掘出,社会公正还涉及由于群体间的“主导”和“压迫”权力关系构成的不公平社会制度。在以上“求同、存异”的思想倡导下,共同构建一个多元、包容、和谐的城市社会成为都市人(特别是年轻一代)所推崇的理想城市图景。此外,(新)马克思主义者将社会不公正视为资本主义社会结构性矛盾的产物,“城市权”成为其分析当前城市社会中资本“积累”“循环”“剥削”和“危机”的核心概念;同时,“城市权”也成为新左派挑战资本制度的旗帜,激发了一系列社会抗争事件。通过以上梳理,本文希望能为澄清我国城乡规划价值观立场,重塑行业道德,提升规划师职业道德修养奠定讨论的基础。


Abstract:

The concept of “social justice” has entered the horizon of Chinese planning academics, and became a hotspot in the discussion of urban affairs, while constantly stimulated by the emerging social conflicts. In fact, the philosophical speculations of justice” and “equity” were nurtured in the whole course of socioeconomic and political theory in Eastern and Western Worlds, leaving rich ideological legacies. Therefore, this paper traces the roots of the social justice discourse back to three major ideological sources: (neo)Liberalism, Communitarianism and (neo)Marxism. It summarizes major social justice ideas in the Western World since the Enlightenment, hence to contextualize thoughts, to distinguish viewpoints, and to uncover origins and successions between theories and theorists. On the one hand, a “distributive justice” that derived from the “moral individualism” and “bottom-line welfare system” advocated by neoliberal scholars has become a “universal value” gradually accepted by the globalized world system (China included). On the other hand, some theories kept trying to redirect the dialogue on social justice from “liberalizing individual freedom” to “establishing the moral standards in collectively living”. The Communitarianism, which rooted in traditional patriostism and the ethics of belief, constantly reminds the individualists that the discussion of social justice should not ignore one’s “communal encumbrance”, “collective responsibilities”, “sense of belonging” and “pride and shame” as a community member. While the theory of “politics of difference”reveals that urban social justice issue involves the “dominative” or “oppressive” power relations between social groups which defined the injustice distribution in the first place. Therefore, hoping for “creating urban commons” and “celebrating city diversification”, a heterogeneous, inclusive and cohesive urban society became the shared vision of a metropolitan living, especially among young generations. From the third source, (neo)Marxists see social injustice as a result of the structural conflicts within the capitalist system. They are using the concept of “the right to the city” as the core analystical tool to explain the “accumulation”, “circulation”, “exploitation”, and “crisis” of capital in the modern urbanization process. The “right to the city” is also serving as the assembly banner for the “new left” in fighting against capitalism in the cities. By reframing the historical and theoretical perspectives on the social justice discourse, this paper is expected to elicit further discussions in regard to the value system, moral standing-point, and professional ethics of urban planners in China.


版权信息:
基金项目:受湖南省省重点研发计划(2016SK2011)、国家教育部博士点基金项目(20130161120047)、留学回国人员科研启动基金项目(20141685)、中央高校基本业务费资助
作者简介:

周恺,湖南大学建筑学院城乡规划系,副教授。zhoukai_nju@hotmail.com

董丹梨,湖南大学建筑学院,硕士研究生。1975667029@qq.com

潘兰英,长沙市规划勘测设计研究院,规划师。810925441@qq.com


译者简介:

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