2019年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2018.237
From “Passive Receiver” to “Co-creator”: A Developing Framework of Smart City Theory from the Evolving View


Chu Jinhua


Keywords:Smart City; Data; Citizen Participation; Bottom-Up; Citizen-sourcing


针对智慧城市理论研究存在的概念多元化、研究脉络不明显和对市民参与问题认知深度不够等现象,论文以“市民在智慧城市建设中所发挥的作用”为视角对智慧城市理论典型观点进行了演化分析。然后从“ICT 成熟度—城市发展需求—建设任务”三个维度构建了智慧城市理论整合模型,提出:(1)人的认知是智慧城市建设的动力源;(2)智慧城市是一个散系统;(3)智慧城市建设是一个不断深化的连续体;(4)智慧城市建设内容需经历基础设施建设、制度转型和大众创新三个阶段;(5)以市场为主体的商业模式是智慧城市建设健康可持续发展的有力支撑等观点。接下来,结合演化分析和研究观点指出了智慧城市理论发展趋势并提出了以下建议:(1)学术界应主动对接相关政府部门和ICT 企业,提升理论对实践的指导作用;(2)创新研究视角,按“自下而上”建设模式构建智慧城市理论体系;(3)创新数据获取方法;(4)将研究重点转移到市民参与上来;(5)多关注智慧城市建设的商业模式创新。


Taking into account the diversification, ambiguous context and lack of knowledge of citizen participation in smart theory research area, this paper analyzes the evolution of typical attitudes on smart city theory from the view of “roles the citizens play during the smart city construction”. Then, it puts forward an integrative framework of smart city theory based on the “ICT maturity-urban development needs-tasks” dimension, based on which it proposes that (1) human recognition is the source of driving force for smart city construction; (2) smart city is a system of systems; (3) smart city construction is a continuously deepening continuum; (4) the construction contents should experience three stages which include infrastructure construction, institution transformation and citizen innovation; (5) the market-based business model is a strong support for the healthy and sustainable development of smart cities. Next, according to the above evolution analysis and research proposals, this paper advances the developing directions as well as puts forward some related suggestions: (1) the researchers should keep an active contact with the practitioners in order to promote the theories’ guiding roles on practices; (2) innovative research perspective, constructing a smart city theoretical system according to the “bottom-up” construction model; (3) innovate the method of acquiring data; (4) focus on the citizen participation field; (5) pay more attention to innovate the business models of smart cites construction.




  • [1] United Nations. World urbanization prospects: the 2014 revision, hilights[R]. New York: UN, 2014.
    [2] OECD. OECD environmental outlook to 2050: the consequences of inaction[R]. Paris: OECD, 2017.
    [3] BIBRI S E. A foundational framework for smart sustainable city development: theoretical, displinary, and discursive dimensions and their synergies[J]. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2018(38): 758-794.
    [4] TOWNSEND A. Smart cities: bigdata, civic hackers, and the quest for a new utopia[M]. NY: WW Norton & Company, 2013: 28.
    [5] MAHIZHNAN A. Smart city: the Singapore case[J]. Cities, 1999, 16(1): 13-18.
    [6] LETAIFA S B. How to strategize smart cities: revealing the SMART model[J]. Journal of Business Research, 2015, 68(7): 1414-1419.
    [7] DATTA A. A 100 smart cities, a 100 Utopias[J]. Dialogue in Human Geography, 2015, 5(1): 49-53.
    [8] HOLLANDS R G. Will the real smart city please stand up?[J]. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action, 2008, 12(3): 303-320.
    [9] 楚金华. 我国智慧城市建设研究述评[J]. 现代城市研究, 2017, 32(8): 115-120.
    [10] BIBRI S E, KROGSTIE J. Smart sustainable cities of the future: an extensive interdisciplinary literature review[J]. Sustainable Cities and Society, 2017, 31: 183-212.
    [11] ANGELIDOU M. Smart cities: a conjecture of four forces[J]. Cities, 2015, 47: 95-106.
    [12] NAM T, PARDO T A. Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions[C]. Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research. College Park: Springer, 2012.
    [13] CARAGLIU A, DEL BO C, NIJKAMP P. Smart cities in Europe[J]. Journal of Urban Technology, 2011, 18(2): 65-82.
    [14] GIFFINGER R, GUDRUN H. Smart cities ranking: an effective instrument for the positioning of the cities?[J]. Architecture City and Environment, 2010(4): 7-26.
    [15] KUMMITHA R K R, CRUTZEN N. How do we understand smart cities? an evolutionary perspective[J]. Cities, 2017, 67: 43-52.
    [16] CALZADA I, COBO C. Unplugging: deconstructing the smart city[J]. Journal of Urban Technology, 2015, 22(1): 23-43.
    [17] GIBBS D, KRUEGER R, MACLEOD G. Grappling with smart city politics in an era of market triumphalism[J]. Urban Studies, 2013, 50(11): 2151-2157.
    [18] RICHTER C, KRAUS S, SYRJA P. The smart city as an opportunity for entrepreneurship[J]. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2015, 7(3): 211-226.
    [19] 新型智慧城市建设部际协调工作组. 新型智慧城市发展报告(2017)[M]. 北京: 中国计划出版社, 2017: 37-40.
    [20] NEIROTTI P, MARCO A D, CAGLIANO A C, et al. Current trends in smart city initiatives: Some stylised facts[J]. Cities, 2014, 33: 25-36.
    [21] LEYDESDORFF L, DEAKIN M. The triple helix of smart cities: a neoevolutionary perspective[J]. Journal of Urban Technology, 2011, 18(2): 53-63.
    [22] LOMBARDI P, GIORDANO S, FAROUH H, et al. Modelling the smart city performance[J]. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 2012, 25(2): 137-149.
    [23] KOMNINOS N, PALLOT M, SCHAFFERS H. Open innovation towards smarter cities[R]. Luxemburg: European Commission, 2015.
    [24] BAKICI T, ALMIRALL E, WAREHAM J. A smart city initiative: the case of Barcelona[J]. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 2013, 4(2): 135-148.
    [25] 楚金华. 基于利益相关者视角的智慧城市价值创造模式研究[J]. 当代经济管理, 2017, 39(6): 55-63.
    [26] 李德仁, 姚远, 邵振峰. 智慧城市中的大数据[J]. 武汉大学学报(信息科学版), 2014(6): 631-640.
    [27] MACKE J, CASAGRANDE R M. Smart city and quality of life: citizens' perception in a Brazilian case study[J]. Cleaner Production, 2018(3): 1-24.
    [28] 楚金华. 中国地级以上智慧城市建设动因探寻——基于268 个城市的事件史分析方法[J]. 统计与信息论坛, 2018, 33(12): 82-91.
    [29] MAYANGSARI L, NOVANI S. Multi-stakeholder co-creation analysis in smart city management: an experience from Bandung, Indonesia[J]. Procedia Manufacturing, 2015(4): 305-321.
    [30] ROCHET C. Urban lifecycle management: a research program for smart government of smart cities[J]. Management and Administrative Professional Review, 2016, 7(2): 1-20.
    [31] 赵勇, 张浩, 吴玉玲, 等. 面向智慧城市建设的居民公共服务需求研究——以河北省石家庄市为例[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015(4): 473-481.
    [32] SCHMIDTHUBER L, HILGERS D. The emergence of local open government: determinants of citizen participation in online service reporting[J]. Government Information Quarterly, 2017, 34: 457-469.

《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223