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2019年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.387
关联·机制·治理: 基于微气候评价的高密度城市步行适宜性环境营造研究
Correlation, Mechanism, Control: Research on High-density Urban Pedestrian Suitability Environment Construction Based on Micro-climate Assessment

西蒙· 马尔温 杨俊宴 郑屹 乔纳森· 拉瑟福德

Simon Marvin, Yang Junyan, Zheng Yi, Jonathan Rutherford

关键词:步行适宜性;城市微气候;高密度建成区环境;城市规划;管控策略

Keywords:Walkability; Urban Microclimate; High-density Built Environment; Urban Planning; Control Strategy

摘要:

适宜步行的城市环境不仅仅包含连续、优美且尺度宜人的步行空间,适宜的温度、风速同样深刻影响着人们在城市中的行走体验。近年来,受全球气候变化的影响,以伦敦、巴黎、布鲁塞尔、巴塞罗那等为代表的高密度欧洲城市出现了过于炎热、寒冷或强风等不适宜的城市微气候,严重影响甚至迫使人们减少或避免在相关城市空间中的步行等户外活动。同时,针对可步行城市的大量既有研究侧重分析城市步行环境中的物质要素及其内在机制,如景观、步行道宽度、休憩设施等,对影响人们户外活动时生理感受的城市微气候要素的研究较少,如温度和风速等。因此,在具体讨论和衡量人们在城市中的步行体验以及提升城市步行适宜性的过程中,是否存在一种新的微观气候治理逻辑值得探索。针对该问题,本文通过分析城市物质空间与城市微气候之间的交互影响,归纳总结出了两者之间的关联机制。进而提出一种行人尺度和以步行适宜性为导向的城市微气候管控策略及治理逻辑,来提升高密度、高强度城市建成区中人们步行时的生理感受,从另一角度优化高密度城市中的步行适宜性,促进以人为本的城市发展。


Abstract:

Walkable urban environment not only contains continuous, beautiful and pleasant walking space, but also has a profound impact on people’s walking experience in the city due to the appropriate temperature and wind speed. In recent years, under the influence of global climate change, unsuited urban microclimate including too hot or too cold weather or strong wind has seriously affected outdoor activities in European cities with high density, such as London, Paris, Brussels, Barcelona, which forced people to reduce or avoid activities including walking in related urban spaces with harsh microclimate environment. Simultaneously, a large number of existing studies in walkable research field are focusing on the analysis of the physical elements in the urban pedestrian environment, such as landscape, pedestrian path width, recreation facilities, and their internal mechanisms. However, there are few studies on the urban microclimate elements, such as temperature and wind speed, which affect people’s physiological feelings in outdoor activities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore whether there is a microclimate governance logic in the specific discussion and measurement of people’s walking experience and the improvement of walking suitability in cities. Based on this issue, this paper analyses the interaction between urban material space and urban microclimate, and summarizes the correlation mechanism between urban material environment and microclimate. Then, pedestrian-scaled and pedestrian-oriented urban microclimate control strategy and governance logic are proposed to improve pedestrians’ physiological feelings during the walking process in high-density urban built environment. In addition, this is to optimize walking suitability in high-density cities and to promote the development of human-oriented city from another view.


版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

西蒙· 马尔温,英国谢菲尔德大学教授,谢菲尔德大学城市研究所主任。s.marvin@sheffield.ac.uk

杨俊宴,东南大学建筑学院,教授。yangjy_seu@163.com

郑屹(通信作者),东南大学建筑学院,博士研究生。zhengy17_seu@163.com

乔纳森· 拉瑟福德,法国高科路桥大学技术、区域与社会研究实验室。jonathan.rutherford@enpc.fr


译者简介:

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