点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:830
2019年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.344
德国住房租赁制度及其对我国住房租赁市场培育的启示
German Housing Rental System and Its Enlightenment to the Cultivation of Housing Rental Market in China

王阳

Wang Yang

关键词:德国;住房租赁制度;租金控制;租购同权;租售均衡

Keywords:Germany; Housing Rental System; Rent Control; Equal Rights for Living in Rental or Purchased Home; Balance Between Housing Rent and Sale

摘要:

德国的住房租赁市场成熟,制度完善。租金控制依托市场机制,运用反映一个地区市场租金水平的“租金明镜”,结合法规严控租金增长;租赁法规立足于共赢,对合同期限、驱离租户限制、驱离租户通知时间要求、住房押金等规定细致明确;户籍、金融、住房保障等相关制度确保租购同权,使租房与购房各具优势。我国住房租赁市场的培育与发展,应以租售均衡为目标:首先使租房与购房的居民享受均等户籍与社会福利政策,实现租购同权;其次,应创建租金控制工具,稳定租金增长与收益,促进金融机构在住房租赁市场的信贷盈利;再次,应健全法规,细化住房租赁管理。


Abstract:

The German rental housing market is mature and with perfect systems. Relying on market mechanism, the rent is set by “Rent Mirror” which can reflect the regional rents level, and the rent increases is strictly controlled according to laws and regulations around “Rent Mirror”. Based on winwin situation for both tenant and landlord, rental regulations are stipulated clearly and specifically to details on “duration of contracts”, “justified reasons for tenant eviction”, “eviction notification requirements”, “deposit requirements”, etc. The related systems such as “household registration”,“finance systems”, and “social housing systems”, ensure the rights of tenants and private householders equally, make renting and purchasing a house have their respective advantages. The learning from German rental systems is valuable to the development of Chinese housing rental market. Aiming for balance between rent and sale, the first step is to decouple private household property rights from household registration and social welfare, and make equal rights for living in rental or purchased home; secondly, rent control tools should be created to stabilize the rent increases and the rental return, and to promote financial institutions obtain credit funds profit from rental sector; thirdly, in order to refine the management of rental sector, related laws and regulations should be improved.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(51608415),陕西省自然科学基础研究计划—— 一般项目(青年)(2018JQ5096),住房城乡建设部2016 年科学技术项目计划——研究开发项目(2016-K2-019),陕西省教育厅专项科研计划项目(16JK1432),国家留学基金
作者简介:

王阳,博士,西安建筑科技大学建筑学院,讲师,硕士生导师;德国魏玛包豪斯大学,博士后;国家注册城市规划师。dayangxauat@163.com

译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 刘斌. 住房自有率、人口流动与劳动力参与率——基于全国第六次人口普查数据的研究[J]. 技术经济与管理研究, 2016(10): 88-92.

    [2] 李培林, 陈光金, 张翼. 社会蓝皮书:2016 年中国社会形势分析与预测[M]. 北京: 社会科学文献出版社, 2015.

    [3] 李宏瑾, 徐爽. 住房自有率、经济增长与社会发展——对欧美各国数据的经验分析[J]. 南方经济, 2009(8): 13-15.

    [4] DE BOER R, BITETTI R. A revival of the private rental sector of the housing market? - lessons from Germany, Finland, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands[R]. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2014.

    [5] FITZSIMONS J. The German private rented sector - a holistic approach[M]. Denmark: The Knowledge Centre for Housing Economics, 2014.

    [6] EEKHOFF J. Wohnungspolitik. 2., neu bearbeitete Aufl[M]. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002.

    [7] ARNOTT R. Time for revisionism on rent control?[J]. Journal of economic perspectives, 1995, 9(1): 99-120.

    [8] 朱秋霞. 德国社会保障住宅分配制度演变及对中国的启示[J]. 现代经济探讨, 2013(4): 85-88.

    [9] TURNER B, MALPEZZI S. A review of empirical evidence on the costs and benefits of rent control[J]. Swedish economic policy review, 2003(10): 11-56.

    [10] ANDREWS D, SáNCHEZ A C, JOHANSSON ?. Housing markets and structural policies in OECD countries: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No.836[D]. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2011.

    [11] DOL K, HAFFNER M. Housing statistics in the European Union 2010[M]. Hague: Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, 2010.

    [12] WHITEHEAD C, SCANLON K, MONK S, TANG C, et al. Understanding the role of private renting: a four-country case study[R]. Cambridge: Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research and LSE London, 2016: 50-63.

    [13] NOLL H-H, WEICK S. Housing in Germany: expensive, comfortable and usually rented - analysis of the housing conditions and quality in comparison to other European countries[J]. Informationsdienst soziale indikatoren, 2014(4): 1-6.

    [14] BIELMEIER S, LANGE T. Real estate market Germany 2016/2017[R]. Hamburg: DG HYP-Deutsche Genossenschafts-Hypothekenbank AG, 2016: 42-43.

    [15] VOIGTL?NDER M. Three risks for the German residential property market[R]. K?ln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft K?ln, 2017: 12-14.

    [16] M?BERT J. The German housing market in 2018 - price and rent outlook for Berlin, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich and Stuttgart[R]. Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Bank Research, 2018: 1-11.

    [17] THOMSCHKE L, HEIN S. So schnell schie?en die Preu?en nicht - effekte der Mietpreisbremse in Berlin: empirica paper Nr. 226[R]. Berlin: empirica Forschung und Beratung, 2015: 1-11.

    [18] KHOLODILIN K A. Quantifying a century of state intervention in rental housing in Germany[J]. Urban research & practice, 2017, 10(3): 267-328.

    [19] HEIN S, THOMSCHKE L. Notizen zur Mietpreisbremse: empirica paper Nr. 240[R]. Berlin: empirica Forschung und Beratung, 2017: 1-13.

    [20] DAVIES B, SNELLING C, TURNER E, MARQUARDT S. Lessons from Germany: tenant power in the rental market[R]. London: Institute for Public Policy Research, 2017: 19-22.

    [21] CUERPO C, KALANTARYAN S, PONTUCH P. Rental market regulation in the European Union[M]. Brussels: European Commission Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, 2014: 4.

    [22] SáNCHEZ A C, ANDREWS D. To move or not to move: what drives residential mobility rates in the OECD?[R]. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2011: 17.

    [23] Amt für Wohnungswesen, Stadt K?ln. Wohnen in K?ln: Fakten, Zahlen und Ergebnisse 2016 Ausblick 2017[R]. K?ln: Amt für Wohnungswesen, Stadt K?ln, 2017: 27.

    [24] Landeshauptstadt Mu?nchen, Sozialreferat. Mietspiegel für München 2017[Z]. Frontenhausen: Ortmaier-Druck GmbH, 2016.

    [25] 张江涛, 闫爽爽. 房价稳定与政策性住房金融体系:德国的启示[J]. 金融与经济, 2017(6): 47-53.

    [26] 孙晓圣. 德国住房储蓄制度及其对中国的启示[J]. 北京房地产, 1996(8): 38-40.

    [27] 汪利娜. 政策性住宅金融:国际经验与中国借鉴——兼论中国住房公积金改革方案[J]. 国际经济评论, 2016(2): 87-100.

    [28] 胡川宁. 德国社会住房法律制度研究[J]. 社会科学研究, 2013(3): 89-94.

    [29] 郑宇劼, 张欢欢. 发达国家居民住房租赁市场的经验及借鉴——以德国、日本、美国为例[J]. 开放导报, 2012(2): 31-34.

    [30] 汪利娜. 租购同权:好政策大挑战[J]. 城乡建设, 2017(16): 28-29.

    [31] 杨瑛. 借鉴德国经验加快建设以公租房为主的住房保障体系[J]. 城市发展研究, 2014, 2l(2): 77-82.

    [32] 张延群. 德国公租房政策对我国的启示[J]. 中国经贸导刊, 2011(14): 32-33.

    [33] KOFNER S. Social housing in Germany: an inevitably shrinking sector?[J]. Critical housing analysis, 2017, 4(1): 61-71.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

5588896