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2019年第5期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2018.256
美国民间非营利机构管运城市公共空间的模式研究
Research on the NPO-run Model of American Urban Public Spaces

黄林琳 王一

Huang Linlin, Wang Yi

关键词:非营利机构;城市公共空间;商业改良区;城市公园管委会; 美国城市

Keywords:Non-profit Organization; Urban Public Space; Business Improvement District; Urban Park Conservancy; American Cities

摘要:

城市公共空间作为城市管理部门为居民提供的重要公共产品,其规划管理运营通常由地方政府全权负责,一旦缺乏资金的投入便会疏于维护、管理,慢慢衰败直至丧失其基本的公共服务功能。以40 余年来美国民间非营利机构管运城市公共空间的两个主要模式为例,分析、研究其作为政府管控模式的重要补充,如何积极有效地提升城市公共空间的综合品质,并进一步促进美国城市中心区的复兴。以拓展我国城市公共空间的多元管运模式为研究目的,采用文献研究与案例调研的方法,基于理论及社会背景研究,结合纽约布莱恩公园及圣路易斯森林公园两个案例,对当前美国非营利组织管运城市公共空间的两类影响较大的模式进行概括性梳理,分析其适应性及管运目标,为我国城市更新过程中公共空间的差异化管运提供借鉴。


Abstract:

Urban public space is one of the most important public goods supplied by the local government. Most of urban public spaces are managed by local administration department and rely on annual public expenditure. Once the local government runs into fiscal crisis, some of the public spaces will be impacted by the unreliable management and maintenance, and ruined till they lose basic public service function and become danger zones dragging down the local social and economic development. This paper takes American urban public spaces run by nonprofit organization (NPO) as examples to illustrate how the NPO-run model acting as one of the important supplements to the government-run model, improving the comprehensive quality of public spaces and promoting the downtown revitalization of American cities. With the intention of enriching management models for public space in China, this paper provides deep knowledge of two influential NPO-run models: business improvement district model and urban park conservancy model, with two typical cases for each model: Bryant Park in New York and Forest Park in St. Louis. After giving a brief introduction of public goods theory and social background study, the adaptability and management objectives of the two different models are analyzed in detail, and it provides reference to the differentiated public space management in the related district renewal in China.


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作者简介:

黄林琳,博士,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院建筑系,讲师。kozmicaray@163.com

王一,博士,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院建筑系,副教授。wangyicaup@tongji.edu.cn


译者简介:

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