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全文下载次数:19
2019年第6期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.508
日常都市主义理论发展及其对当代中国城市设计的挑战
Development of Everyday Urbanism and Its Challenges to Contemporary Chinese Urban Design

陈煊 玛格丽特·克劳福德

Chen Xuan, Margaret Crawford

关键词:日常都市主义;城市设计;城市人文;日常生活;公共空间

Keywords:Everyday Urbanism; Urban Design; Humanities; Everyday Life; Public Space

摘要:

现实中的城市设计是渐进的,其形式在城市经济、社会、文化活动的过程中呈现。当代中国城市设计的技术理性框架源自早期西方城市形态学理论,经过多年实践,在管控方法上取得了令人瞩目的成果。然而区别于技术理性,西方城市设计中人文内涵的意义表达和创作一直未能得到实质性的关注,导致设计一味追求纯粹、抽象的概念,与丰富、具体、多样的现实生活形成巨大反差。这也成为中国城市设计的一个基本矛盾。针对这一点,“日常”与“都市主义”这两个词——一个普通常见,一个抽象晦涩——被结合在一起,创造了一个通过城市生活来接近城市设计的新起点。本研究结合文献分析和实践案例调查来探讨日常都市主义在美国的发展和在中国实践的现状,试图将日常都市主义理论与中国城市的日常生活联系起来。结论指出中国蕴含了大量而丰富的日常实践知识库,这些知识远远超越现有专业技术知识的研究范畴,值得欣赏和分析。日常都市主义是对当前中国城市设计框架的补充,为现有城市设计提供灵感的同时也提出了新挑战。

Abstract:

Urban design in reality is gradual and is the form presented in the process of urban economic and social activities. The technical rational framework of contemporary Chinese urban design originated from the early Western urban morphology theory. Recently, Chinese urban design has achieved impressive results in the theoretical and methodological management. However, different from technical rationality, the meaning expression and creation of humanistic connotation in Western urban design has not been able to receive substantial attention. They have neglected some fundamental dimensions of urbanism such as China's rich civic and social life and its regional cultural characteristics. The design pursues the rational pursuit of pure abstract concepts, and the everyday life is highly specific and diverse, which has become a basic contradiction in Chinese urban design. In response to this, the words “everyday” and “urbanism” that one common and the other difficult to understand, create a new starting point for urban design through urban life. This study combines literature to analyze the contextual map of daily urbanism generated and developed in the United States, and combines field research into the current state of urban design in China, trying to link Western theory with the daily life practices of Chinese cities. The conclusion points out that China contains a large amount of everyday practice knowledge, which is worthy of appreciation and analysis. Everyday urbanism is a complement to current Chinese urban design, providing inspiration for existing urban design, while also presenting new challenges.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51808205),2019 年湖南省普高等学校教学改革研究(湘教通[2019]436),湖南大学本科教育教学改革和教材改革专项(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助)(531111000002)
作者简介:

陈煊,加州伯克利大学环境设计学院博士后,湖南大学建筑学院副教授。chenxuan@hnu.edu.cn
玛格丽特·克劳福德,加州伯克利大学环境设计学院终身教授,美国城市与区域规划史学会主席。mcrawfor@berkeley.edu

译者简介:

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