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2019年第6期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.514
消极规划:直面城市加密的日常生活
Negative Planning: Everyday Life with Increased Urban Density

吴文媛

Wu Wenyuan

关键词:积极规划;消极规划;存在优先;出发点导向;城市密度;社会连接

Keywords:Active Planning; Negative Planning; Existence Priority; Source Orientation; Urban Density; Social Connection

摘要:

城市规划是对当下的干预,建成区更新自不待言。即便农业用地或荒地的城市化开发,也不能忽视过去的日常状态所积累的人地关系,并需警觉现在的干预对未来日常使用所造成的积淀作用。基于此,作者通过城市实践案例的比较研究提出“消极规划”,以回顾过去数十年中国快速城市化背景下以“积极规划”为导向的先验原理,并以出发点现实导向取代愿景导向,总结实践提出“消极规划”应该被重新审视并作为资源分配的规划技术方法,提倡规划者应实事求是地直面规划蓝图达成过程中城市密度不断增加的现实。这个加密的过程是通过日常的社会文化、经济活动形成的,研究需重新思考规划在什么时候被需要的问题,其具体实践可通过四个操作性原则完成:存在优先原则、维护成本优先原则、端源解决问题优先原则、弹性优先现状原则。究其根本,“消极规划”提倡以实事求是的追问精神直面不可回避的两大主题:人与自然的关系,社会分歧与共识。

Abstract:

Urban planning is current intervention, even the renewal of the built-up area. We should realize the relationship between people and land accumulated in the daily state of the past when facing the urbanization process of agricultural land or wasteland. And it is necessary to be aware of the intervention on future daily use by current impacts. Based on this, the “negative planning” is proposed through the comparative study of urban practice cases, looks back on the realm of transcendental principles leading by the method of “active planning” under the rapid urbanization background in China in the past few decades, and replaces the vision orientation with the realization of starting point orientation. This paper summaries “negative planning” should be re-examined and considered as the planning and technical method of resource allocation. The increasing urban density during the process of achieving the planning blueprint should be confronted, which is formed by daily social cultural and economic activities. This research rethinks when planning is needed, and the specific practice can be completed through four operational principles: existence priority, maintenance cost priority, origin solution priority and flexible in existence priority. At its root, “negative planning” advocates to face two unavoidable themes with the spirit of seeking truth from facts: the relationship between man and nature, social differences and consensus.

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作者简介:

吴文媛,深圳市雅克兰德设计有限公司总经理,首席规划师,低冲击发展在中国研究与行动小组召集人。apecsz@vip.163.com

译者简介:

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