点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:410
2019年第6期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.515
街边市场的多目标协同规划治理:以美国波特兰街边市场建设为例
Multi-objective Cooperative Planning Governance of Street Market: A Case Study of Street Market Construction in Portland, the US

陈煊 袁涛 杨婕

Chen Xuan, Yuan Tao, Yang Jie

关键词:街边市场;波特兰;摊贩;协同规划治理;草根文化;食物车

Keywords:Street Market; Portland; Vendor; Cooperative Planning Governance; Grassroots Culture; Food Cart

摘要:

街边市场以基本相似的临时流动形式充斥在全球的每一个国家。在中国春秋战国时期(770 BC—221 BC)的著作《周礼》中已有关于“夕市,夕时而市,贩夫贩妇为主”的记载,街边市场的特定空间和社群延续至今有着中国自身独特的形式和内容,但其生存境地一直堪忧。尤其是近年在单一目标式管理方法下,对街边市场实行了大面积的“取缔、驱逐、监控”等相关政策,导致一系列的“社会冲突事件”频频发生,摊贩治理问题反反复复一直困扰着地方政府及相关管理部门。本研究聚焦于美国波特兰政府以多目标协同规划治理的街边市场,以及以此形成的都市生活文化,发现波特兰街市治理背后无不体现了其城市政府开放包容的价值观。结论指出,城市公共空间的管理政策需要更大的弹性和包容性,重新评估中国现行管理实施效果,而这首先需要肯定街边市场在城市发展中的意义,寻求地方政府多部门协同规划治理的系统整合方法;其次,公众应该关注草根街市文化。

Abstract:

Street Market is flooded in every country in the world as a basically similar temporary mobility form. Since the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (770 BC - 221 BC) in China, there have been recorded about the management of the street vendors in “Zhou L”. Its specific space and community continues to have its own unique form and content, but its living condition is worrying for a long time. Especially after implementing the single-objective management and the policy of “banning, expelling and monitioring”, many social conflicts have occurred frequently and repeated backtracking of street vendors has been plaguing local governments and relevant authorities. The study focuses on the multi-objective collaborative planning governance that implemented in street market managed in Portland, and the urban life culture formed by it. Tracing back to the origin of Portland’s market governance reflects the Portland government’s open and indusive values. The conclusion calls for more flexibility and inclusiveness in urban public space management policies, re-evaluating existing implementation effects in China need to affirm the value of street market in the process of urban development, and seeking a systematic integration method of multi-department management for local governments, calls on the public to pay attention to grassroots market culture.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51808205),2019 年湖南省普高等学校教学改革研究(湘教通[2019]436),湖南大学本科教育教学改革和教材改革专项(中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助)(531111000002)
作者简介:

陈煊,加州伯克利大学环境设计学院博士后,湖南大学建筑学院副教授。chenxuan @hnu.edu.cn
袁涛,湖南大学建筑学院,硕士。
572063911@qq.com
杨婕,湖南大学建筑学院,博士研究生。604418658@qq.com

译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] BROMLEY R. Street vending and public policy: a global review[J]. International journal of sociology & social policy, 2000, 20(1/2): 1-28.
    [2] 杨天宇. 周礼译注[M]. 上海: 上海古籍出版社, 2004.
    [3] QUENTIN B, FRANCOIS B. Managed informality: regulating street vendors in Bangkok[J]. City & community, 2016, 15(1): 29-43.
    [4] 姚宇. 国外非正规就业研究综述[J]. 国外社会科学, 2008(1): 91-95.
    [5] BHOWMIK S K. Street vendors in Asia: a review[J]. Economic & political weekly, 2005, 40(22/23): 2256-2264.
    [6] 何丹, 朱小平, 钱志佳. 城市流动摊贩研究述评——兼论上海市摊贩的特征[J]. 城市问题, 2013(3): 73-79.
    [7] CARDOSO D C V, COMPANION M, MARRAS S R. Street food: culture, economy, health, and governance[M]. Routledge, 2014.
    [8] NEWMAN L L, BURNETT K. Street food and vibrant urban spaces: lessons from Portland, Oregon[J]. Local environment, 2013, 18(2): 233-248.
    [9] 陈雯婷. 摊贩现象存在的道德法律性分析——对比印度对摊贩权利的保护[J]. 法制博览, 2015(33): 103-105.
    [10] KOCH R. Licensing, popular practices and public spaces: an inquiry via the geographies of street food vending[J]. International journal of urban and regional research, 2015, 39(6): 1231-1250.
    [11] BHOWMIK S. Legal protection for street vendors[J]. Economic & political weekly, 2010, 45(51): 12-15.
    [12] CROSS J C. Informal politics: street vendors and the state in Mexico City[M]. Stanford: Stanford University Press,1998.
    [13] 蔡克蒙. 中国城管能从外国学习哪些经验[J]. 法学, 2010(10): 108-120.
    [14] 笪素林, 王可. 城市街头摊贩治理之道——基于纽约街头摊贩治理的分析[J]. 江苏行政学院学报, 2017(6): 72-79.
    [15] 黄耿志, 徐孔丹, 薛德升. 广州摊贩空间疏导模式及其成功效应的影响因素——基于沥滘村疏导区的实证研究[J]. 人文地理, 2013, 28(6): 74-79.
    [16] 王晓, 王志权. 流动摊贩治理的武汉经验与温州经验及其启示[J]. 城市问题, 2015(6): 84-87.
    [17] 陈立兵. 弱势群体的自雇就业权利与提升城市治理水平——基于城市流动商贩治理问题的分析[J]. 中国行政管理, 2009(12): 35-38.
    [18] 李瑾. 论城市化进程中的低端需求——以城市摊贩问题为例[J]. 城市问题, 2009(3): 54-57.
    [19] 张英魁, 刘兴鹏. 城乡二元结构视阈中城市流动摊贩的治理[J]. 行政论坛, 2009(4): 76-80.
    [20] 王晓燕. 比较视域下的流动摊贩治理研究[J]. 理论与改革, 2016(1): 108-111.
    [21] 黄耿志, 薛德升. 1990 年以来广州市摊贩空间政治的规训机制[J]. 地理学报, 2011, 66(8): 1063-1075.
    [22] 刘超. 试错空间的形成:城管与摊贩博弈下的空间规训机制——基于武汉市“城管”实践分析[J]. 云南行政学院学报, 2016(1): 28-32.
    [23] KAPELL H, KATON P, KOSKI A, et al. Food cartology: rethinking urban spaces as people places[R]. Portland: City of Portland Bureau of Planning, 2008.
    [24] RODGERS K, ROY K. Cartopia: Portland’s food cart revolution[M]. Seattle: Consolidated Press, 2010.
    [25] WESSEL G M. Mobilizing food vending: rights, communication technology and urban space in the American City[D]. California: University of California, Berkeley, 2015.
    [26] GREEN J, SCHROCK G, LIU J H. Portland’s food economy: trends and contributions[J/OL]. (2015)[2019-08-30].
    http://works.bepress.com/gschrock/18/.
    [27] UNDP. Overcoming human povery[M]. New York: New York UNDP, 2000.
    [28] SEN A K. Development as freedom[M]. Oxford University Press, 2001.
    [29] YASMEEN G. Stockbrokers turned sandwich vendors: the economic crisis and small-scale food retailing in Southeast Asia[J]. Geoforum, 2001, 32(1): 91-102.
    [30] CHASTAIN A. Food carts as retail real estate[J]. Quarterly & urban development journal, 2010(2): 61-70.
    [31] USCC. Food truck nation[R]. Washington: USCC, 2018.
    [32] WHYTE W H. The social life of small urban spaces[M]. Washington: The Conservation Foundation, 1980.
    [33] 简· 雅各布斯. 美国大城市的死与生[M]. 金衡山, 译. 南京: 译林出版社, 2010.
    [34] CHAITAWAT B. Conflicts over streets: the eviction of Bangkok street vendors[J]. Cities, 2017, 70: 22-31.
    [35] LEGATES R T, STOUT F. The city reader[M]. Oxon Routledge, 2011.
    [36] CURTIS R B. Ethical markets in the artisan economy: Portland DIY[J].
    International journal of consumer studies, 2016, 40(2): 235-241.
    [37] GLICKER J J. Food cart economics: a comprehensive analysis of Portland’s street food market[D]. Oregon: University of Oregon, 2014.
    [38] PEAT D. Food carts can be good business[N]. The Toronto Sun, 2013.
    [39] ASIMOV E. In Portland, a golden age of dining and drinking[N]. The New York Times, 2007.
    [40] 笪素林, 王可. 城市街头摊贩治理之道——基于纽约街头摊贩治理的分析[J]. 江苏行政学院学报, 2017(6): 72-79.
    [41] 张国平, 章灿钢. 城市流动摊贩管理:治理模式的转型与实现条件[J]. 晋阳学刊, 2008(5): 51-54. 

《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

5588902