点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:0
2020年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.669
建成环境对老年人健康的影响 :认识基础与方法探讨
Health Effect of the Built Environment on the Older Adults: Fundamental Understanding and Research Approach

于一凡

Yu Yifan

关键词:建成环境 ;老年人 ;健康 ;循证研究 ;中介效应 ; 老年宜居环境

Keywords:Built Environment; Older Adults; Health; Evidence-based Research; Mediation Effect; Age-friendly Environment

摘要:

良好的环境有益于居民的身心健康,对于长时间逗留在居住环境里的老年人而言意义尤其重大。针对衰老带来的一系列健康问题,规划设计应关注建成环境对老年人个体活动机能的支持与补偿,发掘环境要素在促进健康行为、发挥康复作用等方面的潜力。由于建成环境和人群健康分属于两个影响因素众多的开放系统,现阶段,作为新兴研究领域的相关探索在认识基础和研究方法等方面尚存在一系列亟待解决的问题。为此,本文提出以环境压力模型和积极生活生态模型作为理论基础,以循证策略作为研究方法,以中介效应作为分析手段开展研究工作,旨在为健康视野下老年宜居环境的探索提供理论基础和研究框架。 


Abstract:

People gain health benefit from well-designed environment both physically and mentally, especially for the older adults who spend most of time in the living environment. Facing the health challenges brought about by aging, age-friendly environment is getting proven to be valuable in many aspects, such as the environmental compensation to the individual activity, the potential effects to older adults’ functional rehabilitation and healthy behavior promotion and so on. Since the built environment and human being’s health belong to two open systems with many influencing factors, the health impact study of built environment, at its emerging stage, still has a series of essential problems to be explored. Among those, the key issue exists in the lack of theoretical basis and applicable research approaches. For this purpose, two theoretical models are drawn on in this paper, which includes the environmental stress model and the active living ecological model. Given the great potential and increasing impact of evidence-based strategy, it is recommended as the major method in health-related studies. In order to improve the correlation between research variables, the paper also introduces an approach of mediation effects analysis.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51878456,51578386)
作者简介:

同济大学城市规划系教授,博士生导师。yuyifan@tongji.edu.cn 

译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 联合国开发计划署 . 人类发展报告 [R]. 2017. 

    [2] 吴玉韶 , 郭平 , 苗文胜 , 等 . 2010 年中国城乡老年人口状况追踪调查 数据分析 [M]. 北京 : 中国社会出版社 , 2014. 

    [3] AGREN G, BERENSSON K. Healthy ageing: a challenge for Europe[R]. Swedish National Institute of Public Health, 2006: 29. 

    [4] World Health Organization.World report on ageing and health[R]. Geneva, 2015. 

    [5] BUFFEL T, PHILLIPSON C. Can global cities be ‘age-friendly cities’? urban development and ageing populations[J]. Cities, 2016, 55: 94-100. 

    [6] DIEZ ROUX AV, Mair C. Neighborhoods and health[J]. Annals of the New York academy of sciences, 2010, 1186: 125-145. 

    [7] 世界卫生组织 . 关于老龄化与健康的全球报告 [R]. 2016. 

    [8] STINEMAN M G, ROSS R N, MASILIN G, et al. Population-based study of home accessibility features and the activities of daily living: clinical and policy implication [J]. Disability and rehabilitation, 2007, 8(2): 34-45. 

    [9] LAWTON M P, NAHEMOW L. Ecology and the aging process[M]// EISDORFER C, LAWTON M P, eds. The psychology of adult development and aging. Washington DC, the US: American Psychological Association, 1973: 619-674. 

    [10] WATSON J B. Behaviorism[M]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930: 171. 

    [11] MCLEROY K R, BIBEAU D, STECKLER A, et al. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs[J]. Health education quarterly, 1988, 15: 351-377. 

    [12] SALLIS J F, BAUMAN A, PRATT M. Environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity[J]. American journal of preventive medicine, 1998, 15(4): 379-397. [13] 于一凡 , 胡玉婷 . 社区建成环境健康影响的国际研究进展——基于体 力活动研究视角的文献综述和思考 [J]. 建筑学报 , 2017(2): 33-38. 

    [14] SACKETT D L, ROSENBERG W M C, GARY J M , et al. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t[J]. British medical journal, 1996, 312: 71-72. 

    [15] ULRICH R. View through a window may influence recovery[J]. Science, 1984, 224(4647): 224-225. 

    [16] KAREN K L. Developing and implementing the Active Design Guidelines in New York City[J]. Health & place, 2011(18): 5-7.

     [17] HIGGS P, HYDE M, WIGGINS R, et al. Researching quality of life in early old age: the importance of the sociological dimension[J]. Social policy & administration, 2003, 37(3): 239-252. 

    [18] FRANCIS J, GILES-CORTI B, WOOD L, et al. Creating sense of community: the role of public space[J]. Journal of environmental psychology, 2012, 32: 401-409. 

    [19] JENNIFER L K, THOMPSON S. The three domains of urban planning for health and well-being[J]. Journal of planning literature, 2014, 29(3): 239-256.

     [20] MADDOX G L, DOUGLASS E B. Self-assessment of health: a longitudinal study of elderly subjects[J]. Journal of health & social behavior, 1973, 14(1): 87. 

    [21] STANOJEVIC J O, SAULIūN? S, ?UMSKAS L, et al. Determinants of selfrated health in elderly populations in urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK: findings of the EURO-URHIS 2 survey[J]. European journal of public health, 2017; 27(S2): 74-79. 

    [22] MANLEY A F. Physical activity and health. a report of the surgeon general[J]. Journal of nutrition education, 1997, 29(1): 42-44. 

    [23] World Health Organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health[J]. Food & nutrition research, 2004, 48(2): 292-302.

    [24] World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health[R]. 2010: 1-58. 

    [25] EWING R, CERVERO R. Travel and the built environment: a meta-analysis[J]. Journal of the American Planning Association, 2010, 76(3): 265-294. 

    [26] SAELENS B E, HANDY S L. Built environment correlates of walking: a review[J]. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2008, 40(7S): S550-S566. 

    [27] KERR J, ROSENBERG D, SALLIS J F, et al. Active commuting to school: associations with environment and parental concerns[J]. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2006, 38: 787-794. 

    [28] BURTON E. Streets ahead? the role of the built environment in healthy ageing[J]. Perspect public health, 2012, 132(4): 161-162. 

    [29] BILGEL F, KARAHASAN B C. Self-rated health and endogenous selection into primary care[J]. Social science & medicine, 2018(197): 168-182. 

    [30] MA J, MITCHELL G, DONG G, et al. Inequality in Beijing: a spatial multilevel analysis of perceived environmental hazard and self-rated health[J]. Annals of the American association of geographers, 2016: 1-21. 

    [31] CHIOU S T, CHEN L K. Towards age-friendly hospitals and health services[J]. Archives of gerontology & geriatrics, 2009, 49(S2): S3-S6. 

    [32] NIELSEN T S, HANSEN K B. Do green areas affect health? results from a Danish survey on the use of green areas and health indicators[J]. Health & place, 2007, 13(4): 839-850. 

    [33] MITCHELL R, POPHAM F. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study[J]. Lancet, 2008, 372(9650): 1655. 

    [34] ORBAN E, SUTCLIFFE R, DRAGANO N, et al. Residential surrounding greenness, self-rated health and interrelations with aspects of neighborhood environment and social relations[J]. Journal of urban health, 2017, 94(2): 158-169. 

    [35] NESSEL E H. The Physiology of aging as it related to sports[J]. AMAA journal, 2004, 17(2): 12-18. 

    [36] SCHROLL M. Physcial activity in an ageing population[J]. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 2003, 13(1): 63-69. 

    [37] YAFFE K, BARNES D, NEVITT M, et al. A prospective study of physical activity and cognitive decline in elderly women: women who walk[J]. Archives of international medicine, 2001, 161(14): 1703-1708. 

    [38] SPIRDUSO W W, CRONIN D L. Exercise dose-response effects on quality of life and independent living in older adults[J]. Medicine & science in sports & exercise, 2001, 33(S6): S598. 

    [39] NELSON M E, REJESKI W J, BLAIR S N, et al. Physcial activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association[J]. Circulation, 2007, 116 (9): 1094. 

    [40] MICHAEL Y, CUNNINGHAM G. Measuring the impact of the built environment on physical activity among seniors[C]. American Public Health Association 131st Annual Meeting, 2003.

    [41] FRANK L D, KERR J, SALLIS S J F, et al. A hierarchy of sociodemographic and environmental correlates of walking and obesity[J]. Preventive medicine, 2008, 47: 172-178. [42] COOGAN P F, WHITE L F, ADLER T J, et al. Prospective study of urban form and physical activity in the black women’s health study[J]. American journal of epidemiology, 2009(9): 1105-1117. 

    [43] EWING R, CERVERO R. Travel and the built environment: a meta-analysis[J]. Journal of the American planning association, 2010, 76(3): 265-294. 

    [44] GREEN L W, GLANZ K, HOCHBAUM G M, et al. Can we build on, or must we replace, the theories and models in health education?[J]. Health education research, 1994, 9(3): 397-404. 

    [45] OKUN M A, STOCK W A, HARING M J, et al. The social activity/subject well-being relation: a quantitative synthesis[J]. Research on aging, 1984, 6(1): 45-65. 

    [46] CAITLIN E C, DUGAN E. Social isolation, loneliness and health among older adults[J]. Journal of aging and health, 2012, 24(8): 1346-1363. DOI: 10.1177/0898264312460275. [47] WILSON R S, KRUEGER K R, ARNOLD S E, et al. Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer’s disease[J]. Archives of general psychiatry, 2007(64): 234-240. 

    [48] CACIOPPO J T, HUGHES M E, WAITE L J, et al. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: cross sectional and longitudinal analyses[J]. Psychology and aging, 2006 (21): 140-151. 

    [49] CACIOPPO J T, HAWKLEY L C. Social isolation and health, with an emphasis on underlying mechanisms[J]. Perspectives in biology and medicine, 2003(46): S39-S52. 

    [50] SEEMAN T. Health promoting effects of friends and family on health outcomes in older adults[J]. American journal of health promotion, 2000(14): 362-370. 

    [51] KENT J L, Thompson S M. Fostering effective interdisciplinary collaboration between the built environment and health[C]. State of Australian Cities Conference, 2011. 

    [52] MAAS J, VAN DILLEN S M, VERHEIJ R A, et al. Social contacts as a possible mechanism behind the relation between green space and health[J]. Health & place, 2009, 15(2): 586-595. 

    [53] THOMPSON W C. Linking landscape and health: the recurring theme[J]. Landscape and urban planning, 2011, 99(3-4): 187-195. 

    [54] WARD T C, ROE J, ASPINALL P, et al. More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities: evidence from salivary cortisol patterns[J]. Landscape and urban planning, 2012, 105(3): 221-229. 

    [55] FRANCIS J, GILES-CORTI B, WOOD L, et al. Creating sense of community: the role of public space[J]. Journal of environmental psychology, 2012, 32(4): 401-409. 

    [56] HICKMAN P. Third place and social interaction in deprived neighborhoods in Great Britain[J]. Journal of housing & the built environment, 2013, 28(2): 221-236.

    [57] WILLIAMS D R, PATTERSON M E, ROGGENBUCK J W, et al. Beyond the commodity metaphor-examining emotional and symbolic attachment to place[J]. Leisure sciences, 1992, 14(1): 29-46. 

    [58] ANDERSSON J E. Architecture for the silver generation: exploring the meaning of appropriate space for ageing in a Swedish municipality[J]. Health & place, 2011, 17(2): 572-587. 

    [59] FADDA G, CORTéS A, OLIVI A, et al. The perception of the values of urban space by senior citizens of Valparaiso[J]. Journal of aging studies, 2010, 24(4): 344-357. 

    [60] KORPELA K M, YLEN M, TYRVAINEN L, et al. Determinants of restorative experiences in everyday favorite places[J]. Health & place, 2008, 14(4): 636-652. 

    [61] WALLSTON B S, PDAGNA S W, DEVELLIS B M. Social support and physical health [J]. Health psychology, 1983, 2(4): 367-391. 

    [62] MCAULEY E, KONOPACK J F, MOTL R W, et al. Physical activity and quality of life in older adults: influence of health status and self-efficacy[J]. Annals of behavioral medicine, 2006(31): 99-103. 

    [63] YUNG E H K, CONEJOS S, CHAN E H W. Social needs of the elderly and active aging in public open spaces in urban renewal[J]. Cities, 2016(52): 114-122. 

    [64] KING AC, CASTRO C, WILCOX S, et al. Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial-ethnic groups of US middle-aged and older-aged women[J]. Health psychology: official journal of the division of Health Psychology American Psychological Association, 2000, 19(4): 354-364.  

    [65] CHAD K E, REEDER B A, HARRISON E L, et al. Profile of physical activity levels in community-dwelling older adults[J]. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2005, 37(10): 1774-1784. 

    [66] World Health Organization. The Brasilia declaration on ageing[R]. Geneva, 1996. 

    [67] World Health Organization. Jakarta statement on healthy ageing[R]. Geneva, 1997. 



《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

3972350