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2020年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.699
改善老年人的住房与社区环境:规划设计如何应对衰弱与独居的挑战?
Improving Housing and Neighbourhoods for the Vulnerable: Older People, Small Households, Urban Design, and Planning

安 · 福赛思 詹妮弗 · 莫林斯基 简夏仪 著 于一凡 译

Written by Ann Forsyth, Jennifer Molinsky, Har Ye Kan Translated by Yu Yifan

关键词:老年人 ;衰弱 ;住房 ;社区 ;健康 ;独居

Keywords:Older People; Frail; Housing; Neighbourhood; Health; Single

摘要:

需要日常照料的老年人数量正在急速增长。即使老年人自理能力不断减弱并越来越趋向于独居,当代社会的主流选择与政策目标仍着重于协助他们在原先的居所度过晚年。然而现阶段,美国和其他很多国家的住房均未针对日益严峻的老龄化挑战采取应对措施,为居家老年人提供的公共服务与支持相当匮乏。本文基于满足老年人在衰弱过程中的各项需求,从空间和社会的视角系统地检视了社区和住房层面的创新模式,内容包括服务强化型社区、集中照料型社区、全龄型社区,为老人服务型住房组团,小规模代际融合居住型住房,以及交通、输送和通信等方面技术手段的创新。这些对策目前尚未得到广泛应用,但有理由相信这些手段有助于推进居家和社区养老战略目标的实现。规划与设计人员应认识到老年人在生理、感官、认知障碍和独居时面临的挑战,利用设计手段改善公共空间及其连接性。 


Abstract:

The number of older people who need help with daily tasks will increase during the next century. Currently preferences and policies aim to help older people to stay in their existing homes, to age in place, even as they become less able to care for themselves and, increasingly, live alone. However, the majority of homes in the US and many other countries are not designed to support advanced old age or are not located to easily provide support and services. The paper explores the needs of older people experiencing frailty. It examines the existing range of innovations to make neighbourhoods and homes more supportive, physically, socially, and in terms of services. These include: enriching neighbourhoods, providing collective services, building all-age neighbourhoods, creating purpose-built supportive housing, developing small-scale intergenerational models, and engaging mobility, delivery, and communications innovations. Some will allow people to remain in their current dwelling but others focus on people remaining in a local community. Few are widely available at present. Urban designers can more fully engage with the multiple challenges of those who have physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments and living in solo households by becoming champions for a more comprehensive set of public realm improvements and linkages.


版权信息:原文 2019 年在线出版于《国际城市设计》(Urban Design International)杂志, http://doi.org/10.1057/s41289-019-00081-x,作者授权本刊发表中译文。
基金项目:
作者简介:

安 · 福赛思(通信作者),哈佛大学设计学院城市规划与设计系 

詹妮弗 · 莫林斯基,哈佛大学住房研究联合中心 

夏简仪,美国霍普学院 

译者简介:

于一凡,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院

 


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