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2020年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.670
日本社区嵌入型养老设施配置发展经验对中国的启示
Inspirations from the Deployment and Development Experiences of the Community-based Elderly Facilities in Japan for China

伊藤增辉 周燕珉 秦岭

Ito Masuteru, Zhou Yanmin, Qin Ling

关键词:设施配置;社区嵌入型;在地养老;弹性指标;多元化养老服务

Keywords:Facility Deployment; Community-based; Aging in Place; Flexible Standard; Diversified Elderly Care Services

摘要:

随着中国人口老龄化程度日益加深,养老设施的普及配置已刻不容缓。然而由于部分相关概念未能明确统一、设施体系尚不完善、配置标准灵活性不足等问题,导致中国在发展过程中一味追求养老床位数量达标,却忽略了老年人的实际养老需求,造成大量社区存在设施供给与服务需求脱节的现象。世界上率先进入超老龄社会的日本,从2006 年开始构建社区统合照料体系。在设施配置规划上,从原有设施体系中独立出小规模的社区嵌入型设施体系,两个体系并存互补,使设施配置更具弹性,有助于灵活应对老年人的多样化需求,在年老人熟悉的社区中实现高质量养老服务的精准配送。通过推动小型化设施的普及配置,实现了设施在既有社区内的渗透发展。本文以日本的官方开放数据为基础,通过梳理其社区嵌入型养老设施的配置和发展状况,揭示了这一规划举措对日本在高度城市化地区实现“在地养老”制度理念的关键意义。在借鉴相关经验的基础上,结合中国的发展现状,提出了完善设施体系、因地制宜确定配建指标和设施规模、充分发挥设施区域协同作用等对中国具有现实意义的启示。


Abstract:

Planning and developing elderly facilities is being an urgent task for aging China. However, due to the facts such as part of the related key concepts have not been clearly unified, the systematic deployment of facilities is still on the processing way, and the standards are not flexible enough, etc., reaching the target number of beds turns to a priority during the process of development, while ignoring the actual care needs of the elderly. Mismatches between facility-supply and service-demand are shown in communities nationwide. As the first country to enter the super-aging society in the world, Japan has been building a community-based care system since 2006. In the planning of facility deployment, a new type of facility system, with the key feature of community-based and a small-scale is setup independently from the original system. It brings more flexibility to the deployment of facilities by combining the two systems, aiming at building up a close relationship between the elderly and care services in a community. The penetration of facilities in existing communities has been realized by promoting the small scale facility system. Based on official open data of Japan, this study sorts out the deployment and development status of the community-based elderly facilities in Japan, and points out that this planning measure is the key for Japan to achieve the concept of “aging in place”. Based on the experiences, it proposes inspirations such as to improve the facility system, to determine the construction indicators and scale of facilities, as well as to give full play of facility area synergy, which will be useful for China on developing an efficiently care-service system.


版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

伊藤增辉,博士,日本株式会社都市设计总研代表。udi-ito@ksf. biglobe. ne. jp

周燕珉,清华大学建筑学院,教授、博士生导师。yanminzhou0508@163.com

秦岭,清华大学建筑学院,博士研究生。qinl16@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn


译者简介:

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