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2020年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.049
精明收缩理念在美国锈带地区规划实践中的新进展:扬斯敦市社区行动规划研究
New Advances of “Smart Shrinkage” Practice in American Rust Belt Cities: A Study of Neighborhood Action Plan in Youngstown

高舒琦

Gao Shuqi

关键词:收缩城市;社区规划;房屋空置;物业税;精明收缩

Keywords:Shrinking Cities; Neighbourhood Planning; Housing Vacancy; Property Tax; Smart Shrinkage

摘要:

近年来,尽管以精简建成空间规模从而适应人口收缩为特点的“精明收缩”理念已经得到了越来越多学者的关注,但是其在规划实践领域的进展,尤其是在中微观的社区规划层面,还缺乏足够的研究。在收缩城市中,人口的迅速流失往往伴随着房地产市场的崩溃,大量房产出现空置与废弃的现象,并进一步导致了社区的衰败。如何在规划实践中对此进行积极应对,是目前国际收缩城市研究学者关注的核心议题之一。本文聚焦于全美第一个颁布“精明收缩”总体规划的扬斯敦市,关注其近年来为了应对上述问题颁布的社区行动规划。通过深入剖析社区行动规划的编制过程,以及实施中采用的两种政策性工具——税收止赎与法规实施,及其实施管理机构的运作模式,本文展现了美国收缩城市如何将应对房产空置与废弃的技术工具与社区规划较好地结合在一起,以及面临的困难与挑战。最后,本文就美国经验在我国的适用性与可借鉴性进行探讨,从而提出未来我国收缩城市在应对房产空置与废弃上的相关制度和规划改革建议。

Abstract:

Recently, the conceptualization of “smart shrinkage” that calls for downsizing urban built environment in shrinking cities to cater to the declining population, has received increasing attentions. However, there is a gap between the concept and its practices in planning, especially in micro-level planning practices, i.e. neighbourhood planning. In shrinking cities, drastically reducing depopulation is often in tandem with real-estate market’s recession, which leads to massive urban vacancy and subsequent neighbourhood decay. Addressing these problems is pivotal to shrinking cities and is under heated discussion by scholars in the field of shrinking cities. This paper targets the City of Youngstown, the first municipality in the US that released “smart shrinkage” urban comprehensive plan, as well as its recent initiatives corresponding to the aforementioned problems: eighborhood Action Plans. Through a detailed analysis on City of Youngstown’s planning process, their two policy tools for implementing NAPs (tax foreclosure and code enforcement), and their managing agencies, this paper reveals how American shrinking cities integrate policy tools with neighborhood planning to fight with urban vacancy and abandonment, including the challenges tampering the combination’s effects. The last part is a discussion of NAPs’ suitability and enlightenment to China’s cities, with some suggestions for the country’s future policy reforms to tackle the similar problems of urban vacancy and abandonment in shrinking cities.


版权信息:
基金项目:江苏省自然科学基金(BK20190364)
作者简介:

高舒琦,博士,东南大学建筑学院城市规划系,讲师。shuqigao@seu.edu.cn

译者简介:

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