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2020年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2018.450
城市边缘区生境保护规划与管控:美国圣克拉拉谷地的经验
Habitat Protection Planning and Management in Urban Fringe: Lessons from Santa Clara Valley, the United States

邢忠 汤西子 顾媛媛 周茜

Xing Zhong, Tang Xizi, Gu Yuanyuan, Zhou Qian

关键词:规划流程引导;城市边缘区;生境保护规划;项目流程管控;环境影响评估

Keywords:Planning Process Guidance; Urban Fringe; Habitat Protection Planning; Project Permit Management; Environmental Impact Assessment

摘要:

城市边缘区自然生境的环境胁迫是城市化造成的突出问题,生境保护早在30 多年前就受到发达国家与地区的高度重视。美国的物种保护经历了特定物种实体保护和重要生态斑块保护,最后回到物种赋存生境保护,可见生境保护的重要性。在增强保护规划与提升管控实效方面,中国还有待发掘系统的应对方案。美国生境保护规划起步时间早、管理体系完善且能充分协调生境保护与建设发展的关系,对我国城市地区全覆盖规划,特别是对提升城市边缘区的生态环境保护实效与复合服务能力具有极高的借鉴价值。文章采用文献梳理及案例研究的方法,从保护规划制定、开发项目管控和环境影响评估三个方面剖析美国生境保护的思路和管控方法,并提出通过深度链接高层规划、审批管控流程与环境影响评估的适应性用地布局规划,及“硬—软件”要素结合的管控方法,来应对我国城市边缘区环境保护与管控中存在的问题。

Abstract:

Urban economic developments threaten wildlife habitat in urban fringe areas. More than 30 years ago, habitat protection has already been highly prioritized by many developed countries and areas. Species protection in the United States has experienced a transition from protecting specific species and important ecological patches to protecting species-based-habitats, which has indicated the importance of habitat protection. In China, there remains no established schema to improve the effectiveness of conservation planning and natural habitat management. The United States has a rather mature conservation planning system that is worth learning. Based on the literature review and case studies, this paper analyzes the ideology and practices of habitat protection in the United States from three processes: formation of conservation plans, development permit management, and environmental impact assessment. It suggests using an adaptive planning method that incorporates the guiding plan, planning control, and environmental impact assessment, as well as a management regime that combines “hard” and “soft” elements to cope with the existing problems in environmental protection and control for China’s urban fringe area.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51678087,51708275,51608451),四川省教育厅人文社会科学重点研究基地四川景观与游憩研究中心科研项目(JGYQ2019029)
作者简介:

邢忠,博士,重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验室,教授,博士生导师
汤西子(通信作者),博士,西南交通大学建筑与设计学院,助理研究员。
771760136@qq.com
顾媛媛,博士,重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验室,副教授,硕士生导师。maysmile@foxmail.com
周茜,重庆大学规划设计研究院有限公司,高级工程师

译者简介:

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