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2020年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2018.407
大都市公交导向开发的规划与政策:深圳与西雅图的对比
Planning and Policies for Transit-oriented Development in Megacities: A Comparative Study Between Shenzhen

林雄斌 徐媛 董美璇 林堉楠 黄赞 徐可

Lin Xiongbin, Xu Yuan, Dong Meixuan, Lin Yunan, Huang Zan, Xu Ke

关键词:公交导向开发;交通规划与政策;公交都市;大都市;深圳;西雅图

Keywords:Transit-oriented Development; Transport Planning and Policy; Transit Metropolis; Megacity Area; Shenzhen; Seattle

摘要:

当前,大都市的交通拥堵和环境污染等问题已经成为制约宜居城市建设的重要因素,推进公交导向开发(TOD)和公交都市建设成为国内外大都市空间发展与交通战略的焦点。理解公交导向开发的融资、规划和政策等制定机制是评估其实施效果的重要前提。受限于不同的空间和体制差异,TOD 政策及实施通常呈现不同侧重点,进而导致不同的实施效果。本文以深圳和西雅图的TOD 政策为对比案例,探讨中美不同空间和体制背景下TOD 在发展理念、融资结构、物质形态等方面的异同,有助于深入理解公交都市建设的内涵和优化路径。研究表明,与深圳市相比,西雅图TOD 政策注重轨道交通与低收入社区的融合,以政府补贴或鼓励市场参与来推进轨道交通站点周边保障性住房建设;在规划、融资及实施等环节,注重“谁受益、谁支付”原则来推进轨道交通的多元融资,且注重利益相关主体的深入参与,以提升方案可实施性。基于此,我国未来公交导向开发应加强轨道交通与低收入群体的空间融合,推进轨道交通多渠道融资,并加强融资政策和规划方案制定的公众参与。

Abstract:

The negative externalities of urban growth and rapid motorization, such as traffic congestion and environmental decline, have become major obstacles to sustainable development. As a response, strategies for promoting transit-oriented development (TOD) and transit metropolis are increasingly becoming a huge concern in the field of transportation planning and policies. The decision-making and implementation of TOD would be subject to diverse spatial and policy framework, leading to different effects of TOD. By using the policy and implementation of TOD in Shenzhen and Seattle as a case, this study attempts to understand how TOD’s planning vision, financing structure, and physical elements can vary significantly, which can provide certain insights to better understand the strategies of TOD between China and the United States. Compared to Shenzhen experiences, the policies of TOD in Seattle focus more on the provision of affordable housing around rail station areas, the instruments to secure alternative funds for rail transit based on benefit principles, and the establishment of a platform for stakeholder collaboration. China’s TODs should pay more attention to the integration of rail transit and affordable housing, new approaches to fund rail transit, and multiple interest groups’ involvement in decision-making.

版权信息:
基金项目:宁波市自然科学基金(2019A610042),浙江省自然科学基金(LQ19D010003),北京大学—林肯研究院研究基金(FS01-20191015-LXB)
作者简介:

林雄斌,宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系讲师,北京大学—华盛顿大学(西雅图)联合培养博士。xiongbinlin@126.com
徐媛,杭州市规划和自然资源局余杭分局,北京大学城市规划与设计学院
董美璇,深圳市京东都市产业运营有限公司,北京大学城市规划与设计学院
林堉楠,广东省城乡规划设计研究院,北京大学城市规划与设计学院
黄赞,湖南省娄底市娄星区双江乡人民政府,北京大学城市规划与设计学院
徐可,浙江省发展规划研究院,北京大学城市规划与设计学院

译者简介:

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