点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:482
2020年第4期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.164
适应气候变化的空间规划研究进展:内容和方法
Spatial Planning Adapting to Climate Change: Progress in the Content and Methodology

杨柳青 陈雯 吴加伟 孙伟 李艳

Yang Liuqing, Chen Wen, Wu Jiawei, Sun Wei, Li Yan

关键词:空间规划;适应;气候变化;内容;方法;研究进展

Keywords:Spatial Planning; Adaptation; Climate Change; Content; Method; Research Progress

摘要:

气候变化给人类正常的生产、生活造成了诸多负面影响,对城市可持续发展构成威胁。空间规划被广泛认为是适应气候变化和防备极端天气事件引发的城市安全问题的有效策略之一。本文聚焦“空间规划编制过程中对气候变化的整合”,通过文献追踪,从规划的目标、内容、技术方法三个维度出发,梳理了国内外空间规划在适应气候变化方面的研究和实践。由此得出,在空间规划目标制定上,应将韧性城市的理念与适应气候变化相结合;内容制定上,需要增加气候变化影响评估,并将评价结果整合到基础设施选址布局、生态空间布局优化、空间形态引导和调控、地方法规政策创新以及与现有规划的整合协同等规划内容中;技术方法上,需要加强情景规划、动态循环调整、社区参与等规划方法的运用。此外,本文在总结国内外研究成果的基础上,指出气候变化适应型空间规划这一研究领域欠缺学科交叉,研究尺度和研究对象不完整;未来还可以从气候变化对空间影响的评估,能适应气候变化的理想的空间结构、格局、形态特征,国外适应气候变化的空间规划最佳实践,以及空间规划随气候变化进行动态调整的合理化合法化途径等方面进行深入探讨。


Abstract:

Climate change brings various negative effects to human daily life and production, and thus poses a threat to sustainable urban development. Spatial planning has been widely accepted as an effective strategy responding to climate change and city safety problems caused by climate change and extreme weather events. However, little information is available on the combination of spatial planning and climate change adaptation. This paper focuses on “how to integrate climate change into spatial planning”, and summarizes the spatial planning experience of cities and researches in the literature from the perspectives of spatial planning goal-setting, content-setting and planning methods. In summary, first, spatial planning goal-setting should combine concept of resilient city with climate change adaptation; second, planning content should add climate change impact assessment, and integrate the assessment results into infrastructure layout, urban spatial pattern design, ecological security pattern construction, local regulation and policy as well as planning coordination. In terms of planning methods, scenario planning, dynamic cycle adjustment and community participation should be enhanced in the process of decision-making. In addition, on the basis of summarizing the research reviews at home and abroad, this paper points out that the research on spatial planning adapting to climate change from interdisciplinary perspectives are far from sufficient. Besides, the coverage of research scale and research object is incomplete. Herce, this paper proposes several issues that need to be studied urgently, namely quantitative evaluation of spatial influence of climate change, ideal spatial pattern adapting to climate change, best adapting practices at home and abroad, and rationalizing and validating pathways of dynamic adjustment in spatial planning adapting to climate change.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41701640),中国科学院美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项(XDA230201),中国博士后基金项目(2017M621851)资助
作者简介:

杨柳青,中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,中国科学院大学,博士研究生。lqyang@niglas.ac.cn

陈雯(通信作者),中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,研究员,博士生导师;中国科学院大学资源环境学院,教授。wchen@niglas.ac.cn

吴加伟,中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,助理研究员

孙伟,中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,副研究员

李艳,中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,博士后


译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] IPCC. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis[EB/OL]. United Kingdom; New York, the USA: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013. [2019-03-29]. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/.

    [2] 彭仲仁, 路庆昌. 应对气候变化和极端天气事件的适应性规划[J]. 现代城市研究, 2012, 1: 7-12.

    [3] 彭斯震, 何霄嘉, 张九天, 等. 中国适应气候变化政策现状、问题和建议[J]. 中国人口·资源与环境, 2015, 25(9): 1-7.

    [4] 姜彤, 李修仓, 巢清尘, 等.《 气候变化2014 :影响、适应和脆弱性》的主要结论和新认知[J]. 气候变化研究进展, 2014, 10(3): 157-166.

    [5] HEALEY P, KHAKEE A, OTTE M A, et al. Making strategic spatial plans: innovation in Europe[M]. London: UCL Press, 1997.

    [6] 魏柱灯, 方修琦, 苏筠, 等. 过去2000 年气候变化对中国经济与社会发展影响研究综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(3): 336-343.

    [7] 吴绍洪, 罗勇, 王浩, 等. 中国气候变化影响与适应: 态势和展望[J]. 科学通报, 2016 (10): 1042-1054.

    [8] HAASNOOT M, KWAKKEL J H, WALKER W E, et al. Dynamic adaptive policy pathways: a method for crafting robust decisions for a deeply uncertain world[J]. Global environmental change-human and policy dimensions, 2013, 23(2): 485-498.

    [9] JONG M D, JOSS S, SCHRAVEN D, et al. Sustainable–smart–resilient–low carbon–eco–knowledge cities; making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization[J]. Journal of cleaner production, 2015, 109: 25-38.

    [10] GOOSEN H, GROOT-REICHWEIN M A M D, MASSELINK L, et al. Climate adaptation services for the Netherlands: an operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning[J]. Regional environmental change, 2014, 14(3): 1035-1048.

    [11] ROGGEMA R. Adaptation to climate change: a spatial challenge[M]. Netherlands: Springer, 2009.

    [12] HUGHES S. A meta-analysis of urban climate change adaptation planning in the U.S.[J]. Urban climate, 2015, 14: S2212095515300018.

    [13] RICKARDS L, ISON R, FüNFGELD H, et al. Opening and closing the future: climate change, adaptation, and scenario planning[J]. Environment & planning c: government & policy, 2014, 32(4): 587-602.

    [14] 郑艳. 城市决策管理者对适应气候变化规划的认知研究——以上海市为例[J]. 气候变化研究进展, 2016, 12(2): 118-123.

    [15] ALLIANCE R. Urban resilience research prospectus[M]. Canberra, Stockholm: 2007.

    [16] LEICHENKO R. Climate change and urban resilience[J]. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 2011, 3(3): 164-168.

    [17] WALKER B, HOLLING C S, CARPENTER S, et al. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems[J]. Ecology and society, 2004, 9(2): 5.

    [18] BROWN A, DAYAL A, RUMBAITIS DEL RIO C. From practice to theory: emerging lessons from Asia for building urban climate change resilience[J]. Environment and urbanization, 2012, 24(2): 531-556.

    [19] FOLKE C, CARPENTER S, ELMQVIST T, et al. Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations[J]. AMBIO: A journal of the human environment, 2002, 31(5): 437-441.

    [20] JABAREEN Y. Planning the resilient city: concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk[J]. Cities, 2013, 31(2): 220-229.

    [21] BULKELEY H. Cities and the governing of climate change[J]. Annual review of environment and resources, 2010: 35.

    [22] DESOUZA K C, FLANERY T H. Designing, planning, and managing resilient cities: a conceptual framework[J]. Cities, 2013, 35(4): 89-99.

    [23] KOTHARI A. Radical ecological democracy: a path forward for India and beyond[J]. Development, 2014, 57(1): 36-45.

    [24] 王学义, 郑昊. 工业资本主义、生态经济学、全球环境治理与生态民主协商制度——西方生态文明最新思想理论述评[J]. 中国人口·资源与环境, 2013, 23(9): 137-142.

    [25] 彼得·霍尔, 马克·图德- 琼斯. 城市和区域规划[M]. 北京: 中国建筑工业出版社, 2014: 265.

    [26] 杨东峰, 刘正莹, 殷成志. 应对全球气候变化的地方规划行动——减缓与适应的权衡抉择[J]. 城市规划, 2018, 42(1): 35-42, 59.

    [27] XUEMEI B, DAWSON R J, üRGE-VORSATZ D, et al. Six research priorities for cities and climate change[J]. Nature, 2018, 555(7694): 23-25.

    [28] BROWN D. Making the linkages between climate change adaptation and spatial planning in Malawi[J]. Environmental science & policy, 2011, 14(8): 940-949.

    [29] MASTERSON J H, PEACOCK W G, ZANDT S S V, et al. Planning for community resilience[M]. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, 2014.

    [30] LIM B, SPANGER-SIEGFRIED E, BURTON I, et al. Adaptation policy frameworks for climate change: developing strategies, policies and measures[J]. United States Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 2005(26): 61-102.

    [31] RANNOW S, LOIBL W, GREIVING S, et al. Potential impacts of climate change in Germany[J]. Landscape & urban planning, 2010, 98(3-4): 160-171.

    [32] UN-Habitat, Planning for climate change: a strategic value-based approach for urban planners[M]. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2014.

    [33] 石先武, 国志兴, 张尧, 等. 风暴潮灾害脆弱性研究综述[J]. 地理科学进展, 2016, 35(7): 889-897.

    [34] PRESTON B L, WESTAWAY R M, YUEN E J. Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations[J]. Mitigation & adaptation strategies for global change, 2011, 16(4): 407-438.

    [35] 喻鸥, 阎建忠, 张镱锂. 区域气候变化脆弱性综合评估研究进展[J]. 地理科学进展, 2011, 30(1): 27-34.

    [36] 崔胜辉, 徐礼来, 黄云凤, 等. 城市空间形态应对气候变化研究进展及展望[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(10): 1209-1218.

    [37] FüSSEL H M. Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons[J]. Sustainability science, 2007, 2(2): 265-275.

    [38] KOVATS R S, EBI K, MENNE B, et al. Methods of assessing human health vulnerability and public health adaptation to climate change[J]. World Health Organization. 2003.

    [39] OSWALD M R, MCNEIL S. Climate change adaptation tool for transportation: Mid-Atlantic Region case study[J]. Journal of transportation engineering, 2013, 139(4): 407-415.

    [40] BRUNNER R, NORDGREN J. Climate adaptation as an evolutionary process: a white paper based on the kresge grantees and practitioners workshop on climate change adaptation[R]. Portland, OR, 2012.

    [41] KRAUSMANN E, CRUZ A M, SALZANO E. Natech risk assessment and management - reducing the risk of natural-hazard impact on hazardous installations[M]. United Nations Office for DisasterRisk Reduction, 2017.

    [42] ROGGEMA R, KABAT P, DOBBELSTEEN A V D. Towards a spatial planning framework for climate adaptation[M]. Swarm Planning, 2012: 29-58.

    [43] ZANON B, VERONES S. Climate change, urban energy and planning practices: Italian experiences of innovation in land management tools[J]. Land use policy, 2013, 32(32): 343-355.

    [44] Greater London Authority. The London plan: the spatial development strategy for London consolidated with alterations since 2011[EB/OL]. London: Greater London Authority, 2015. [2019-04-20]. https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/london_plan_march_2016_malp_-_frontispiece_and_ch1_context_and_strategy.pdf.

    [45] 彭建, 赵会娟, 刘焱序, 等. 区域生态安全格局构建研究进展与展望[J]. 地理研究, 2017, 36(3): 407-419.

    [46] KABISCH N , KORN H , STADLER J , et al. Nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas–linkages between science, policy and practice[M] // Nature-based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas. Cham: Springer Nature, 2017: 1-10.

    [47] 俞孔坚, 李迪华, 袁弘, 等.“ 海绵城市”理论与实践[J]. 城市规划, 2015, 39(6): 26-36.

    [48] VOSKAMP I M, VEN F H M V D. Planning support system for climate adaptation: composing effective sets of blue-green measures to reduce urban vulnerability to extreme weather events[J]. Building & environment, 2015, 83: 159-167.

    [49] 苏伟忠, 杨桂山, 陈爽. 城市空间扩展对区域洪涝孕灾环境的影响[J]. 资源科学, 2012, 34(5): 933-939.

    [50] GOVINDARAJULU D. Urban green space planning for climate adaptation in Indian cities[J]. Urban climate, 2014, 10: 35-41.

    [51] BRAUBACH M, EGOROV A, MUDU P, et al. Effects of urban green space on environmental health, equity and resilience[M] // Nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Cham: Springer, 2017: 187-205.

    [52] DAVE S. High urban densities in developing countries: a sustainable solution?[J]. Built environment, 2010, 36(1): 9-27.

    [53] DUBOIS C, BERGERON O, POTVIN A, et al. Adapting cities to climate change: heat and urban form[C]. Dublin: ICUC8, 2012.

    [54] 赵志强, 于洁, 韦二雄. 雾霾天气的城市规划对策研究——以哈尔滨市为例[J]. 国土与自然资源研究, 2016(3): 18-21.

    [55] 潘美程. 城市风环境问题在城市规划与设计中的研究进展[J]. 建筑知识, 2013, 33(03): 124-126.

    [56] 张正栋, 蒙金华. 基于城市热岛效应的城市降温通道规划研究——以广州市为例[J]. 资源科学, 2013, 35(6): 1261-1267.

    [57] 刘勇洪, 张硕, 程鹏飞, 等. 面向城市规划的热环境与风环境评估研究与应用——以济南中心城为例[J]. 生态环境学报, 2017, 26(11): 1892-1903.

    [58] 朱文莉, 王晓军, 赵强. 低碳建筑设计模式研究——英国皇家建筑师协会气候变化应对策略[J]. 工业建筑, 2016(8): 169-172.

    [59] RIVERA C, WAMSLER C. Integrating climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and urban planning: a review of Nicaraguan policies and regulations[J]. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 2014, 7: 78-90.

    [60] QUEVAUVILLER P, BARCELó D, BENISTON M, et al. Integration of research advances in modelling and monitoring in support of WFD river basin management planning in the context of climate change[J]. Science of the total environment, 2012, 440(3): 167-177.

    [61] SINA M, GONZALO B, KEVIN F, et al. Synthesis report on disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Germany[R]. Bonn, Germany: German Committee for Disaster Reduction. 2017.

    [62] TURNER R E. Doubt and the values of an ignorance-based world view for restoration: coastal Louisiana wetlands[J]. Estuaries & coasts, 2009, 32(6): 1054-1068.

    [63] NSW Planning. NSW coastal planning guideline: adapting to sea level rise[R]. Sydney: NSW Government, 2010.

    [64] ROGERS K, BOON P I, BRANIGAN S, et al. The state of legislation and policy protecting Australia’s mangrove and salt marsh and their ecosystem services[J]. Marine policy, 2016, 72: 139-155.

    [65] HENSTRA D. Climate adaptation in Canada: governing a complex policy regime[J]. Review of policy research, 2017, 34(3): 378-399.

    [66] FLANNERY W, LYNCH K, CINNéIDE M. Consideration of coastal risk in the Irish spatial planning process[J]. Land use policy, 2015, 43: 161-169.

    [67] WOODRUFF S C. Coordinating plans for climate adaptation[J]. Journal of planning education and research, 2018, 11: 1-13.

    [68] BROWN K. Sustainable Adaptation: an oxymoron?[J]. Climate and development, 2011, 3(1): 21-31.

    [69] UITTENBROEK C J, LEONIE J-J, Runhaar H. Mainstreaming climate adaptation into urban planning: overcoming barriers, seizing opportunities

    and evaluating the results in two Dutch case studies[J]. Regional environmental change, 2012, 13(2): 399-411.

    [70] BAYNHAM M, STEVENS M. Are we planning effectively for climate change? an evaluation of official community plans in British Columbia[J]. Jouranl of environmental planning and management, 2014, 57(4): 557-587.

    [71] VOGEL J, CARNEY K M, Smith J B, et al. Climate adaptation: the state of practice in U.S. communities[R]. New York, USA: ABT Associates, 2016.

    [72] STOCKER T F, QIN D, PLATTNER G K, et al. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group i to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change[M] // KIRTMAN B, POWER B S, ADEDOYIN A J, et al. Near-term climate change: projections and predictability. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2013: 955-1028.

    [73] 宋博, 陈晨. 情景规划方法的理论探源、行动框架及其应用意义——探索超越“工具理性”的战略规划决策平台[J]. 城市规划学刊, 2013(5): 69-79.

    [74] STAR J, ROWLAND E L, BLACK M E, et al. Supporting adaptation decisions through scenario planning: enabling the effective use of multiple methods[J]. Climate risk management, 2016, 13(C): 88-94.

    [75] CROSS M S, ZAVALETA E S, BACHELET D, et al. The adaptation for conservation targets (act) framework: a tool for incorporating climate change into natural resource management[J]. Environmental management, 2012, 50(3): 341.

    [76] 陈铭, 郭键, 伍超. 国内基于情景规划法的城市规划研究[J]. 华中建筑, 2013, (6): 20-22.

    [77] JGLOM W S, MCFARLAND J R, COLLEY M F, et al. Assessment of projected temperature impacts from climate change on the U.S. electric power sector using the Integrated Planning Model ?[J]. Energy policy, 2014, 73(C): 524-539.

    [78] KUNAPO J, FLETCHER T D, LADSON A R, et al. A spatially explicit framework for climate adaptation [J]. Urban water journal, 2018, 15(2): 1-8.

    [79] MAIER H R, GUILLAUME J H A, DELDEN H V, et al. An uncertain future, deep uncertainty, scenarios, robustness and adaptation: How do they fit together?[J]. Environmental modelling & software, 2016, 81(C): 154-164.

    [80] WALKER W E. Policy analysis: a systematic approach to supporting policy making in the public sector[J]. Journal of multi-criteria decision analysis, 2000, 9(1-3): 11-27.

    [81] OFFERMANS A, HAASNOOT M, VALKERING P. A method to explore social response for sustainable water management strategies under changing conditions[J]. Sustainable development, 2011, 19(5): 312-324.

    [82] KWADIJK J C J, HAASNOOT M, MULDER J P M, et al. Using adaptation tipping points to prepare for climate change and sea level rise: a case study in the Netherlands[J]. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews climate change, 2010, 1(5): 729-740.

    [83] PHADKE R, MANNING C, BURLAGER S. Making it personal: diversity and deliberation in climate adaptation planning[J]. Climate risk management, 2015, 9(C): 62-76.

    [84] PICKETTS I M, WERNER A T, MURDOCK T Q, et al. Planning for climate change adaptation: lessons learned from a community-based workshop[J]. Environmental science & policy, 2012, 17(17): 82-93.

    [85] ALBERT C, ZINMERMANN T, KNIELING J, et al. Social learning can benefit decision-making in landscape planning: gartow case study on climate change adaptation, Elbe valley biosphere reserve[J]. Landscape & urban planning, 2012, 105(4): 347-360.

    [86] WILSON G A. Community resilience and social memory[J]. Environmental values, 2015, 24(2): 227-257.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

5589003