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2020年第5期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2018.270
何塞普·路易斯·塞特的国际建筑组织活动和城市理念
Josep Lluís Sert’s International Architecture Organization Activities and Urbanism

蒋正良

Jiang Zhengliang

关键词:何塞普·路易斯·塞特;加泰罗尼亚现代建筑艺术家和工程师团体;国际现代建筑协会; 城市设计;市镇设计;平衡人居

Keywords:Josep Lluís Sert; GATCPAC; CIAM; Urban Design; Civic Design; Balanced Habitat

摘要:

何塞普·路易斯·塞特是西班牙著名建筑师、国际建筑运动第二代领袖和教育家。他创立了“加泰罗尼亚现代建筑艺术家和工程师团体”,并在第二次世界大战后担任了十年国际现代建筑协会主席;1956 年起,他召集哈佛大学设计研究生院城市设计会议,逐渐奠定了当代城市设计领域;此后还对联合国人居I 的形成有重要贡献。本文沿着塞特在四个重要国际建筑组织的活动轨迹讨论了若干话题,涉及国际现代建筑协会从创立到解体,现代建筑运动从欧洲国际化到全球化,新老建筑师理念碰撞,以及塞特主导创立的城市设计领域和平衡人居等。一方面较完整地展示出当代现代建筑运动的整体历程和战后现代建筑运动的突出特点:在世界范围深入发展,抛弃国际式和统一范式走向以地区和国家内部的交流,关注于特定文化和地域性等;另一方面,能看到塞特作为现代建筑运动第二代领袖,在不同时代和社会变化过程中对各种现代建筑前沿主题的选择,以及延续现代建筑运动大方向的努力。


Abstract:

Josep Lluís Sert was a famous Spanish architect, and the second-generation leader of the modern architecture movement and educator. In his early years, Sert founded GATCPAC, a Spanish modern architecture organization, and then served as the chairman of the CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne)for 10 years after the World War II. By calling on the urban design conference held by Harvard Graduate School of Design, he gradually opened up the field of contemporary urban design. He also made an important contribution to the formation of the UN Habitat I. Following the process of difference events, this paper discusses several key topics, including the erection and disintegration of the CIAM, the modern architecture movement from European internationalization to globalization, the collision of ideas between new-era and old-era architects, and the field of urban design and the balance of human habitats founded by Sert. On one hand, the paper presents the whole course of the modern architecture movement and several distinctive characteristics after the World War II: abandoning the international and unified paradigm; focusing on the communications among regional and individual national levels; paying more attention to domestic cultures and local characteristics. On the other hand, we can also see that Sert, as the second-generation leader of the modern architecture movement, has chosen various cutting-edge themes of modern architecture during different times and social changes, and has continued his efforts to continue the general direction of the modern architecture movement.


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作者简介:

蒋正良,博士,青岛理工大学副教授;美国加州大学戴维斯分校访问学者。13335016772@163.com

译者简介:

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