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2020年第6期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2018.384
后社会主义转型:爱沙尼亚城市规划体系的市场化改革
Post-socialist Transition: Market-oriented Reform of Estonian Planning System

赵文宁

Zhao Wenning

关键词:爱沙尼亚;城市规划体系改革;市场化;地方自治;产权改革

Keywords:Estonia ;Reform of Planning System; Marketization; Local Autonomy; Property Reform

摘要:

爱沙尼亚于1990 年代苏联解体后恢复独立,成为中东欧后社会主义国家之一。为适应迅速变化的政治、经济、社会需求,其城市规划体系经历了市场化改革,从苏联时期中央计划体制转为1990 年代的“专案式规划”,又于2000 年代建立了市场化的法定规划体系。本文剖析了爱沙尼亚规划体系改革的主要制度基础:地方自治的行政体系、以私有化和地方化为核心的产权改革,以及基于所有权的土地税制度。在此基础上,依据其2003 年颁布的《规划法》对改革后的规划体系进行梳理,并深入讨论了其中具有显著市场化特征的政策安排,包括上下调整的规划等级体系、基于“产权所有者协商制度”的详细规划简化程序,以及临时建设禁令和部分采用规划等。对爱沙尼亚规划体系市场化改革的研究,有助于开拓研究视野,理解中东欧后社会主义地区城市规划发展问题,从而为我国规划体系发展提供启示。


Abstract:

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Estonia became one of the post-socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. In order to adapt to the rapidly changing political, economic and social needs, its urban planning system experienced market-oriented reforms that from the central planning system of the Soviet Union to “ad hoc planning” in the 1990s and then established a market-oriented statutory planning system in the 2000s. This paper analyzes the institutional basis of the reform of Estonian planning system: the administrative system reform towards local autonomy, privatization and localization in land reform, and the ownership-based land tax policy. Furthermore, based on the Planeerimisseadus (Planning Act) adopted in 2003, the reformed planning system is sorted out, and several typical market-oriented policy are discussed in depth, including the two-way adjustment of the planning system, detail plan simplification procedures, temporary building bans and partial adoption of plans. The research on the market-oriented reform of Estonian planning system could help to understand the development of urban planning in post-socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe, thus providing inspiration and references to Chinese planning system.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家留学基金(201506210111)资助
作者简介:

赵文宁,清华大学建筑学院,博士。wenningzhao@hotmail.com

译者简介:

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