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2021年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.388
儿童户外空间使用体验四维研究 —— 以英国谢菲尔德三代人为例
Child Friendly Cities: Changes in Four Dimensions in Children’s Use of Outdoor Environments over Three Generations in Sheffield England

海伦·伍利 著 汤湃 刘孝仪 译

Written by Helen Woolley, Translated by Tang Pai, Liu Xiaoyi

关键词:儿童户外居家活动范围;游戏行为;游戏空间;玩伴;三代人

Keywords:Children’s Home Range; Activities and Play; Playing Spaces; Playing Companions; Three Generations

摘要:

儿童在城市空间中的自由出行范围是评判儿童友好型城市的基本要素之一。然而,儿童的自由出行范围通常由儿童的父母严格管控,在此情况下,“户外居家活动范围”(home range)这一概念为描述“在父母允许的情况下、儿童以家为起点可以独自前往活动的范围”提供了有效的方法。就此课题,世界范围内的研究都指出相似的结果:随着城市化进程深入,城市儿童的户外居家活动范围逐渐缩小。在这样的背景下,该研究于英国英格兰地区的谢菲尔德市进行,主要通过半构建式访谈的形式,辅以不同年代的地图档案,分别对居住在城郊的两个家庭的三代人进行了深入的采访。对比三代人描述的童年经历,结果显示,儿童的户外空间使用体验在以下四个维度均出现了消减:儿童的户外居家活动范围,儿童使用的户外空间类型,户外游戏的种类,以及户外游戏伙伴的数量。


Abstract:

Part of a Chid Friendly City approach relates to the extent to which children can freely use the outdoor environment where they live. Home range, which is the distance a child is allowed to go from home in agreement with their parents, has decreased over several generations in different parts of the world due to urbanisation. The present study conducted a series of semi-structured interviews, accompanied by the archived maps. The interviewees consisted of three generations of two families living in the eastern side of the city Sheffield in North England. The findings revealed reductions across the three generations in four dimensions relating to outdoor play: the home range; the variety of spaces visited by children; the range of the undertaken play activities; and the number of companions they went to a space with, met in a space, and played with.


版权信息:本文改编自《儿童地理》(Children’s Geographies)2015 年第6 期677—691 页《关于户外居家 活动范围、户外空间、活动与同伴的各种经验之减少:英格兰北部谢菲尔德市三代人之间 的变化》(Decreasing Experiences of Home Range, Outdoor Spaces, Activities and Companions: Changes Across Three Generations in Sheffi
基金项目:
作者简介:

海伦·伍利,谢菲尔德大学风景园林学系(景观建筑学系),风景园林与社会学副教授

译者简介:

汤湃,英国谢菲尔德大学社会科学学院风景园林系,博士研究生。ptang1@sheffield.ac.uk

刘孝仪,英国谢菲尔德景观建筑系,助教,英国皇家注册景观建筑师。hsiao.liu@sheffield.ac.uk


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