点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:240
2021年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.386
冒险游戏场的起源、实例与启示
The Origin, Examples and Enlightenment of the Adventure Playground

沈瑶 刘赛 赵苗萱

Shen Yao, Liu Sai, Zhao Miaoxuan

关键词:冒险游戏场;游戏空间;儿童心理问题;儿童权利;儿童参与; 儿童友好城市;自然体验

Keywords:Adventure Playground; Playing Space; Children’s Psychological Illness; Children’s Rights; Children’s Participation; Child Friendly Cities; Natural Experience

摘要:

游戏是儿童成长中不可或缺的部分,儿童友好城市的重要硬件措施是建设儿童游戏据点。冒险游戏场作为代表性场所,在治愈儿童心理问题、培养儿童责任感、激发儿童危机意识和自我保护技能等方面发挥了重要作用。冒险游戏场在国外已有70 余年的实践历史,但我国对冒险游戏场的研究尚处于初级阶段,在实践方面仍属空白。本文从剖析冒险游戏场的起源与核心思想入手,重点围绕欧美和日本的发展背景,对其发展历史进行系统梳理,再深入解读“常设”和“非常设”的三个典型案例,总结出设计理念“自由化”、空间要素“自然化”、场所运营“专业化”三个关键启示,为我国儿童公共空间的研究提供借鉴和参考。


Abstract:

Playing is an indispensable part for children’s growth so it is an important hardware measure to build children’s free playing bases for child-friendly cities. The adventure playground, as a representative place, plays a vital role in curing children’s psychological problems, cultivating children’s sense of responsibility, stimulating children’s crisis awareness and self-protection skills, which has a history of more than 70 years in foreign countries. However, it is still in the cognitive stage and in a blank state of practice in China. This paper starts with the analysis of the origin and core ideas of the adventure playground, focuses on the development of adventure playgrounds in Europe, the USA and Japan, and then deeply interprets the three typical cases of standing and non-conformity. Then, it infers three key inspirations: the design concept of “liberalization”, space elements of “naturalization” and place operation of “specialization”, which aims to provide reference for the empirical study of children’s public and welfare space in China.


版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

沈瑶,日本千叶大学博士,湖南大学建筑学院副教授,博士生导师。shenyao81@hotmail.com

刘赛,湖南大学建筑学院,博士研究生

赵苗萱,湖南大学建筑学院,硕士研究生


译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 胡惠琴, 孙湛辉, 薛名辉, 等.“住居学视角下的适居环境构筑”主题沙龙[J]. 城市建筑, 2018(34): 6-13.

    [2] GLEAVE J, COLE-HAMILTON I. A world without play: a literature review on the effects of a lack of play on children’s lives[R]. Bristol: Play England, 2012.

    [3] 联合国. 儿童权利宣言[S]. 1959.

    [4] 周路路 , 周蜀秦 .“ 自由是如何消失的”:城市儿童公共游戏空间的审视与探讨[J]. 南京社会科学, 2018(9): 92-97.

    [5] WOOLLEY H. Where do the children play? how policies can influence practice[J]. Municipal engineer, 2007, 160(2): 89-95.

    [6] KOZLOVSKY R. Adventure playgrounds and postwar reconstruction[M]//GUTMAN M, CONINCK-SMITH DE N, eds. Designing modern childhoods: history, space, and the material culture of children. Rutgers University Press, 2007.

    [7] PELLEGRINI A D. Children on playgrounds: a review of “what’s out there”[J]. Children’s environments quarterly, 1987(4): 2-7.

    [8] LINDON J. Too safe for their own good: helping children learn about risk and lifestyles[M]. London: National Early Years Network, 1999.

    [9] STINE S. Landscapes for learning[M]. New York: John Wiley & Son, Inc., 1997.

    [10] アレソ·オブ·ハートウシド卿夫人. 都市の遊び場[M]. 大村虔一, 大村璋子訳, 译. 鹿島出版会, 2009.

    [11] 赫伊津哈. 游戏的人:文化中游戏成分的研究[M]. 何道宽, 译. 花城出版社, 2007.

    [12] KOTLYAR I A, SOKOLOVA M V. Adventure playground as an example of the child’s right to play[J]. Psihologi?eskaa Nauka i Obrazovanie, 2014(2): 81-90.

    [13] 高杰. 日本儿童室外游戏空间研究及实践[J]. 风景园林, 2012(5): 99-104.

    [14] FROST J L. American playground movement[J]. Childhood education, 1978, 54(4): 176-182.

    [15] PENNINGTON G. The key word is adventure[J]. Instructor, 1972, 81(7): 74-76.

    [16] PASSANTINO E D. Adventure playgrounds for learning and socialization[J]. The phi delta kappan, 1975, 56(5): 329-333.

    [17] CRAWFORD M E, GRIFFIN N S. Testing the validity of the Griffin/Keogh model for movement confidence by analyzing self-report playground involvement decisions of elementary school children[J]. Research quarterly for exercise and sport,1986, 57(1): 8-15.

    [18] HART C H, SHEEHAN R. Preschoolers’ play behavior in outdoor environment: effects of traditional and contemporary playgrounds[J]. American educational research journal, 1986, 23(4): 668-678.

    [19] ROBERTS C, PRATT C, LEACH D. Classroom and playground interaction of students with and without disabilities[J]. Exceptional children, 1990-1991, 57(3): 212-224.

    [20] DE BEN M A, LOZANO M T, RUIZ R O. Los espacios de juego en la escuela: aprender jugando a “la casita” playgrounds in school: learning through games[J]. Culturay educación, 1996(8): 99-113.

    [21] HUDSON S D, THOMPSON D, MACK M G. Are we safe yet? a twenty-five year look at playground safety[J]. Journal of physical education, recreation and dance, 1997, 68(8): 32-34.

    [22] JANSSON M. Children’s perspectives on public playgrounds in two Swedish communities[J]. Children, youth and environments, 2008, 18(2): 88-109.

    [23] YILMAZ S, BULUT Z. Analysis of user’s characteristics of three different playgrounds in districts with different socio-economical conditions[J]. Building and environment, 2007, 42(10): 3455-3460.

    [24] AMOUZEGAR Z, NAEINI H S, JAFARI R. Design principle of playgrounds’ equipments and spaces for children: an interaction education approach[J]. Procedia - social and behavioral sciences, 2010(2): 1968-1971.

    [25] DOTTERWELCH A R, GREENE A E, BLOSSER D. Using innovative playgrounds and cross-curricular design to increase physical activity[J]. The journal of physical education, recreation and dance, 2012, 83(5): 47-55.

    [26] OKE A, MIDDLE G J. Planning playgrounds to facilitate children’s pretend play: a case study of new suburbs in Perth Western Australia[J]. Planning practice and research, 2016, 31(1): 99-117.

    [27] SILVER D, GIORGIO M, MIJANOVICH T. Utilization Patterns and perceptions of playground users in New York City[J]. Journal of community health, 2014, 39(2): 363-371.

    [28] SNOW D, BUNDY A. Girls’ perspectives on the ideal school playground experience: an exploratory study of four Australian primary schools[J]. Children’s geographies, 2019, 17(2): 148-161.

    [29] 李圆圆, 张建林. 日本冒险游戏场运营管理研究[J]. 西南大学学报(自然科学版), 2018(7): 167-176.

    [30] 李圆圆. 日本冒险游戏场发展对我国儿童游戏场建设的启示[J]. 西南大学学报( 自然科学版), 2019(5): 155-164.

    [31] COWMAN K. “The atmosphere is permissive and free”: the gendering of activism in the British adventure playgrounds movement, ca. 1948-70[J]. Journal of social history, 2019, 53(1): 218-241.

    [32] GUTMAN M, DE CONINCK-SMITH N. The English adventure playground[M]. Rutgers University Press, 2007.

    [33] JOAN A, RUSTY K. The rise of adventure play provision in North America[J]. Children, youth & environments, 2018, 28(2): 68-77.

    [34] 大村璋子. 遊び場づくいハとドづシク—自分の責任で自由に遊ぶ[M]. 株式会社ぎようせい, 2000.

    [35] 梶木典子, 瀬渡章子, 田中智子, 等. 冒険遊び場の活動実態とプレイリーダーの役割に関する研究:冒険遊び場運営団体を対象とした調査結果[J]. 日本建築学会計画系論文集, 2002(560): 237-244.

    [36] 内山悠. 冒険遊び場づくり」運動の現状と課題 : はびきのプレーパークの事例から[J]. 同志社政策科学研究, 2016(2): 99-109.

    [37] 饗庭伸. 日本的社区营造工作面面观[J]. 城市建筑, 2018(25): 28-31.

    [38] 天野秀昭. 冒険遊び場がひらく公園の可能性[J]. ランドスケープ研究, 1999(2): 101-103.

    [39] 原寛道. 安全で魅力ある遊具のためのデザインガイドライン構築[J]. デザイン学研究特集号, 2008(3): 46.

    [40] HART R A. Children’s participation: from toknism to citizenship[M]. Florence: UNICEF International Child Development Centre, 1992.

    [41] 森賀文月, 瀬渡章子, 梶木典子.A study and evaluation of the actual use of adventure playground built by local residents[C]. 日本造园学会, 2002: 747-752.

    [42] 梶木典子. 地域における子どもの遊び場づくり~冒険遊び場づくりの可能性~ [J]. 都市住宅学, 2007(56): 17-21.

    [43] 朴惠恩. 冒険遊び場における運営形態の実態からみた継続性と自立性に関する研究[J]. 日本建築学会計画論文集, 2009(640): 1379-1385.


《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

5693442