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2021年第1期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2018.414
辨析产权与规划权力的关系 —— 中国控规与美国区划法的比较研究
The Sequencing of Property Rights and Planning Powers: Implications for Urban Redevelopment in China and the U.S.

孙睿 著 陈敏 译

Written by Saul Wilson, Translated by Chen Min

关键词:区划法;控规;规划史;美国城市规划;产权;城市更新

Keywords:Zoning; Regulatory Detailed Planning; Planning History; American Planning; Property Rights; Urban Renewal

摘要:

尽管在诸多技术层面与美国区划法相近,中国的控制性详细规划在产权分配方面扮演着完全不同的角色。鉴于美国区划出现在私有产权盛行良久之后,因此象征着对现行产权的一种削减;中国的控制性详细规划则明确了政府会将何种产权授予开发商。因此,当开发商寻求规划变更时,美国对此更为宽容,而中国的制度却把这种行为视作试图变相谋取国家资源。无论如何,这两个国家的开发商都会设法对规划条件施加影响:美国开发商的做法是与当地政府公开谈判,而中国开发商不得不通过更加潜移默化的方式进行游说。长期而言,中国的规划条件调整使得政府以外的机构主导城市再开发项目的难度增大——无论其规模多小;但另一方面,国家也得以分享更多的土地使用价值。由此,虽然中国的控制性详细规划与美国区划法在形式上相似,但二者的作用并不相同,其对城市开发和再开发的影响也大相径庭。


Abstract:

While similar to American zoning in many technical aspects, Chinese detailed control plans play a substantially different role in the distribution of property rights. Whereas American zoning as invented long after privately held property was widespread, and hence represented a diminution of extant property rights, Chinese detailed control plans clarify what property rights the state will sell to developers. As a result, the American zoning regime is more tolerant of developers seeking changes to zoning, while the Chinese system generally sees such behavior as an effort to get discounted access to state resources. Nonetheless, developers in both countries seek to influence planning restrictions: American developers do so through open negotiations with local governments, while Chinese developers are forced into more surreptitious lobbying. In the long run, inflexible planning restrictions make it very hard for anyone but the government to legally undertake even the smallest urban redevelopment projects in China; on the other hand, the state is able to get a higher share of land use value. Hence, while Chinese detailed control plans may formally resemble American zoning, they perform different functions with sharply different implications for urban development and redevelopment.


版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

孙睿,哈佛大学政治系博士研究生。skwilson1@g.harvard.edu

译者简介:

陈敏,城乡规划专业学士。1786803378@qq.com

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