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2021年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2021.028
后智慧城市转型背景下高密度城区建成环境的品质提升研究
Study on Quality Improvement of Built Environment in High-density Urban Areas Under the Background of Post Smart City Transformation

史北祥 西蒙·马尔温 杨俊宴

Shi Beixiang, Simon Marvin, Yang Junyan

关键词:高密度城区;建成环境;迭代演化;空间品质;后智慧城市

Keywords:High-density Urban Areas; Built Environment; Iterative Succession; Spatial Quality; Post Smart City

摘要:

城市的高密度城区通常是城市公共设施与公共活动最为集中的区域,但在高密度建设中也出现了通风不畅、热岛效应增加、污染加剧、步行空间破碎等问题,影响正常的人群活动,甚至危及人体健康。在后智慧城市转型的发展背景下,数字化、信息化与人工智能技术逐渐深度嵌入城市各系统之中,形成以城市智能和自治系统为支撑的新技术体系,以解决高密度城区复杂多样的发展问题,实现人与城市的可持续发展。基于此,本文在对高密度城区建成环境特征和人群活动特征进行深入理论剖析的基础上,揭示了高密度城区超高空间建设强度和建筑高度的特征以及小尺度、多簇群的空间肌理,发现了高密度城区人群高频动态交互、簇群集散、潮汐涌动等活动特征。笔者认为,不同的人群活动对环境品质有着不同的需求,同时,即使是在高密度的建成环境中,通过空间形态的优化,也能起到良好的促进通风、减少污染、提升物理环境舒适度的效果。由此,本文建立了“街道景观—物理环境—人群活动”等要素一体化的环境品质提升框架,进而通过多源异构大数据的耦合分析,探索步行环境品质、物理环境品质、街道景观品质等各要素关联互馈的耦合机制,并根据不同的行为活动需求,提出相应的建成环境品质优化提升的途径与方法。在此基础上,结合人工智能技术的介入,提出可行的智能化规划和自动化响应策略,为高密度城区建成环境的品质提升提供有益的借鉴与指导。

Abstract:

The high-density urban area is usually the most concentrated area of urban public facilities and public activities. However, high-density also causes problems such as poor ventilation, increased heat island effect, intensified pollution and broken walking space, which affect the normal crowd activities and even endanger human health. Under the development background of post smart city transformation, digital, information and artificial intelligence technology has begun to be deeply embedded in various urban systems, forming a new technology system supported by Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS), so as to solve the complex and diverse development problems of high-density urban areas and realize the sustainable development of people and cities. Based on this, according to the in-depth theoretical analysis of the characteristics of built environment and crowd activity, this paper reveals the high-intensity and high-height construction characteristics of high-density urban areas, as well as the spatial texture of small-scale and multi cluster, and finds the high-frequency dynamic interaction, cluster distribution, tidal surge and other activity characteristics. Thus, considered that even in the high-density built environment, through the optimization of spatial form, it could also play a positive role in promoting ventilation, reducing pollution and improving the comfort of physical environment. Therefore, this paper establishes the environmental quality improvement integration framework of “street landscape - physical environment - crowd activity”, and then through the coupling analysis of multi-source heterogeneous big data, explores the coupling mechanism of walking environment quality, physical environment quality, street landscape quality, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures to optimize and improve the quality of built environment according to different behavioral needs. On this basis, combined with the intervention of AI technology, this paper proposes feasible intelligent planning and automatic response strategy, which provides useful reference and guidance for the quality improvement of built environment in high-density urban areas.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目“基于大数据的城市中心区空间规划理论与关键技术研究”(51838002)
作者简介:

史北祥,东南大学建筑学院,副研究员

西蒙·马尔温,英国谢菲尔德大学,教授,博士生导师,城市研究中心主任

杨俊宴(通信作者),东南大学建筑学院,教授,博士生导师;东南大学智慧城市研究院,副院长。yangjy_seu@163.com


译者简介:

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