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2021年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2021.031
人工智能技术在城市灾害风险管理中的应用与探索
Applications and Exploration of Artificial Intelligence Technology in Urban Disaster Risk Management

鲁钰雯 翟国方

Lu Yuwen, Zhai Guofang

关键词:人工智能;风险评估;灾害风险管理;机器学习;神经网络

Keywords:Artificial Intelligence (AI); Risk Assessment; Disaster Risk Management; Machine Learning; Neural Network

摘要:

随着城镇化的高速发展,空间要素密度增加,城市面对的风险复杂程度提高。加强灾害风险管理、提高防灾减灾救灾能力可以有效减少灾害损失,促进城市的安全可持续发展。人工智能的发展为灾害风险管理领域带来了新的机遇和技术支撑。文章梳理了人工智能技术在灾害风险管理领域的交互研究现状。根据灾害不同阶段的特点,本文从灾前的预防准备、监测预警,灾中的灾害救援、应急响应和灾后的恢复重建三个阶段探讨了人工智能在灾害风险管理中应用的关键技术和基本方法。在此基础上,本文建议将人工智能技术应用于我国城市灾害风险管理建设过程,构建基于人工智能技术的灾害风险管理平台,为我国国土空间安全格局规划和韧性城市建设提供参考。

Abstract:

With the rapid development of urbanization and continuous accumulation of urban elements, the complexity of risks is increasing. Strengthening disaster risk management and improving disaster prevention, mitigation and relief capabilities, can effectively reduce disaster losses and promote the safe and sustainable development of cities. The rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) has brought new opportunities for disaster risk management. This paper combs the exploration of AI technology in disaster risk management. The key technologies and basic methods of AI technology in disaster risk management are discussed from three stages: pre-disaster prevention and preparation, monitoring and early warning; disaster response during the disaster, emergency treatment; and post-disaster recovery and reconstruction. It suggests that AI should be applied to the construction of urban disaster risk and emergency management in China, to provide inspiration for spatial security pattern planning and the resilient cities construction.


版权信息:
基金项目:日本学术振兴会项目(18K03022)
作者简介:

鲁钰雯,南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,博士研究生。yuwen_lu@smail.nju.edu.cn

翟国方(通信作者),南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,教授,博士生导师。guofang_zhai@nju.edu.cn


译者简介:

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