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2021年第3期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.051
发达国家城市更新体系的比较研究及对我国的启示 —— 以法德日英美五国为例
A Comparative Study of Urban Regeneration Systems in the Developed Countries and Their Enlightenment to China: Taking France, Germany, Japan, Britain and the United States as Examples

刘迪 唐婧娴 赵宪峰 刘昊翼

Liu Di, Tang Jingxian, Zhao Xianfeng, Liu Haoyi

关键词:城市更新 ;制度体系 ;治理 ;比较研究 ;更新法规 ;竞争力 ;社区更新

Keywords:Urban Regeneration; Institution System; Governance; Comparative Study; Urban Regeneration Regulations; Competitiveness; Community Regeneration

摘要:

我国步入城镇化发展中后期,城市发展由大规模增量建设进入存量提质优化的新阶段,更新制度体系的建设成为保障空间改善活动有序进 行的首要议题之一。为支持我国更新体系科学、合理、系统构建,研究选择更新历程久、制度相对成熟、经验较为丰富的法、德、日、英、美五 国为研究对象,从法规体系、管理体系、计划体系和运作体系四个观察维度开展比较研究。五国更新法规体系主要有两种形式,大陆法系国家以 主干法 + 配套法为主要形式,海洋法系国家城市更新的相关法律主要以次国家行政层级颁布的“法律束”形式对城市更新进行法权上的干预。更 新管理呈现出明显的权力下放特征,头尾两级在实际事务管理中最为关键,五国基层政府的更新管理大多采用“政府更新管理机构 + 授权”的市 场化合作主体的形式。五国更新计划体系呈现出两条主线,一条线索是以提升城市竞争力为导向的城市节点地区更新,大多为城市中心区、商业 区或交通节点地区 ;另一条线索是以社会底层保障和住房环境改善为导向的社区更新。更新运作以自上而下的精英决策与自下而上的自主申报相 结合为主,为保证更新有序推进,各国政府根据治理理念和财政能力在土地管理、融资、空间监测等方面采取多样化的创新工具。根据我国现行 制度环境和城市管理特征,本研究提出了更新体系构建的建议。

Abstract:

Urban development in China is in a period of transition from large-scale urban growth to quality-led urban regeneration. One of the major issues is to establish a well-organized institutional system, ensuring that the comprehensive improvement activities are carried out in an orderly manner. Based on the comparative study of urban regeneration systems in France, Germany, Japan, Britain and the United States, this research puts forward a fundamental framework for regeneration consisting of law system, management system, plan system and operation system, as well as suggestions for a system adapted to China’s institutional environment. There are two main forms of law system in the five countries. In countries using civil law system, the regulation system of urban regeneration consists of top-down laws, regulations and decrees. In comparison, countries using common law system mainly regulate urban regeneration in the form of “legal bundles” promulgated by sub-national administrative levels. Regeneration management shows obvious characteristics of decentralization. National and municipal levels are the relatively critical in actual affairs management. Projects running in the five countries are mostly conducted by market-oriented cooperative entities authorized by the administrative agencies. Regeneration projects are divided into two main types, one orients to enhance the competitiveness of cities, which mostly happens in comprehensive commercial zone in urban center, in contrast, the other aims at social justice, which is mainly community regeneration considering environment improvement and housing supply. Top-down elite decision-making and bottom-up autonomous declaration are both common in terms of regeneration project operation. Governments have adopted various creative institutional approaches in land management, financing, and space monitoring based on political intention and financial capabilities. Suggestions are put forward considering the current institutional environment and urban management characteristics in China.

版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

刘迪,硕士,高级城市规划师,中国城市规划设计研究院上海分院城市设计中心主任。lau_seu@sina.com

唐婧娴,硕士,城市规划师,中国城市规划设计研究院上海分院城市设计中心。tjx14@tsinghua.org.cn

赵宪峰,硕士,城市规划师,中国城市规划设计研究院上海分院城市设计中心

刘昊翼,硕士,城市规划师,中国城市规划设计研究院上海分院城市设计中心


译者简介:

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