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2021年第3期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.046
TOD对居民通勤模式的影响 —— 以英国泰恩威尔都市区为例
Effects of TOD on Residents’ Commuting Patterns: Empirical Evidence from Tyne and Wear, the UK

文萍 赵鹏军 周素红

Wen Ping, Zhao Pengjun, Zhou Suhong

关键词:公交导向开发 ;通勤出行 ;职住空间 ;居住自选择 ;纵向比较 ;泰恩威尔都市区 ;英国

Keywords:TOD; Commuting Travel Modes; Job and Housing Space; Residential Self-selection; Longitudinal Comparison; Tyne and Wear, Metropolitan Area; The UK

摘要:

公交导向开发(TOD)在小汽车主导的发达国家被认为是引导居民由小汽车出行转向公共交通及其他多样化出行模式的城市设计手法。 对于 TOD 的交通影响,不少研究比较检验了 TOD 地区和非 TOD 地区居民的出行模式。然而这种横向比较的研究手法难以排除不同个体在居住 和出行选择背后的复杂内生因素的影响。纵向比较相同个体在 TOD 和非 TOD 环境下出行模式的差异,更能直接反应 TOD 影响个体出行模式的 实际效用。本文以英格兰东北部地区的泰恩威尔都市区为例,基于 2015 年在该地区三个不同区位 TOD 邻里进行的居民调查数据,对居民迁入前 后的职住空间与通勤模式变化进行了比较研究。结果显示,迁居使得部分居民的职住空间模式发生了变化,其中因通勤距离增加而放弃步行进而 转向机动化方式者,绝大多数选择了地铁而非小汽车 ;对于迁居前后需要维持机动化的通勤者,有较少部分的原小汽车通勤者转向了地铁通勤, 且主要是由非 TOD 地区迁入者 ;而 TOD 对通勤方式的影响是长期累积的,随着地铁出行使用量的增加,居民对地铁出行的接受度随之提升, 这也将进一步影响居民的车辆保有决策和未来迁居决策,从而影响居民的出行方式。研究结论表明,TOD 对居民通勤出行存在有限但切实深远 的影响。

Abstract:

In car-dependent developed countries, transit-oriented development (TOD) is considered as an urban design approach guiding residents from car travel to public transport and other diversified travel modes. Many studies have examined the traffic impacts of TOD by comparing the travel modes of residents in TOD and non-TOD areas. However, many endogenous factors behind residents’ decisions on living and travelling among different individuals can hardly be tested in this method. Longitudinal comparisons on travel modes of the same group of individuals in both TOD and non-Tod neighborhoods would directly indicate the effects of TOD on individuals’ travel patterns. Taking Tyne and Wear Metropolitan Area in Northeast England as a case study, and analyzing data collected from three different TOD neighborhoods in this area in 2015, this paper explores the changes in job-housing spaces and commuting modes of residents after moving into these TOD neighborhoods. Results show that some residents’ job-housing spatial patterns have changed after moving. People who have to give up walking due to the increase in commuting distance have largely chosen metro instead of car as their alternatives. For those who need to keep automobile commuting, only a relatively small proportion have turned to metro and most of them moved from non-TOD neighborhoods. The impact of TOD on commuting is long-term. The gradual increasing use in metro has strengthened the acceptance of it, and may further influence residents’ decisions on car ownership and future relocation choices, thereby increasing long-term metro use. It could be concluded that TOD has a limited but profound impact on commuting modes.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41801162、41925003、71961137003),国家留学基金(201306010175)
作者简介:

文萍,博士,中山大学地理科学与规划学院,副研究员。wenp@mail.sysu.edu.cn

赵鹏军,博士,北京大学城市与环境学院城乡规划与交通研究中心,研究员,博士生导师,主任。pengjun.zhao@pku.edu.cn

周素红,博士,中山大学地理科学与规划学院,教授。eeszsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn


译者简介:

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