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2021年第4期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2019.596
基于水资源依赖程度的海岸带空间用途定义和管理研究——美国的经验及借鉴
Study on the Definition and Management of the Spatial Use of Coastal Zones Based on the Degree of Water Dependence: Experiences from the United States

邢文秀 杨湘艳 刘大海

Xing Wenxiu, Yang Xiangyan, Liu Dahai

关键词:赖水;水相关;水强化;定义;用途管制;海岸带

Keywords:Water-dependent; Water-related; Water-enhanced; Definition; Utilization Control; Coastal Zones

摘要:

根据各种用途对水资源的依赖程度对其进行分类和确定滨水优先级,是确保海岸资源最优化利用的有效方法。美国沿海各州及领地在《海岸带管理法》的要求下进行了适应于各地区发展需要的赖水、水相关和水强化用途定义,其在海岸带空间用途定义和管理应用方面的丰富经验值得我国借鉴。本文首先梳理了我国基于水资源依赖程度进行海岸带空间用途管理的探索。然后重点评述了美国不同层次的海岸带空间用途定义与示例,总结美国在主要术语设定和管理元素上的相关指导建议。最后结合我国海岸带发展和管理实践,基于美国经验就我国沿海省市如何建立海岸带空间用途管控政策体系提出有关考虑和建议:明确划分海岸带的空间管控职权;省级规划确定海岸带空间用途定义和通用化代表性清单;市县通过划定海岸带空间用途管控线、基于多重属性进行岸段划分,明确岸段发展愿景,分岸段建立差异性用途管控政策等步骤因地制宜地制定海岸带用途管控政策体系。


Abstract:

It is an effective method to classify and determine waterfront priority according to the dependence of various uses on water resources to ensure the optimal utilization of coastal resources. Under the requirements of Coastal Zone Management Act, most coastal states and territories of the United States have established the definitions of water-dependent, water-related and water enhanced uses to adapt to the development needs of each region. The rich experiences of the United States in coastal zone spatial use definitions and management is worthy of reference. This paper first reviews the exploration of coastal space use management based on water resource dependence in China. Then, it reviews the definitions and  xamples of different levels of coastal zone spatial use in the United States, and summarizes the relevant guidelines for terminology setting and management applications. Finally, based on the development and management practices of China’s coastal zones and the experiences of the United States, this paper puts forward some considerations and suggestions on how to establish the control policy system for the spatial use of the coastal zones in China’s coastal provinces and cities. (1) Clearly divide the authority of the spatial control of the coastal zones. (2) Determine the definition of coastal zone spatial use and the general representative list by provincial planning. (3) The city and county planning formulate the coastal zone use control policy system according to local conditions by delimiting the coastal zone spatial use control line, dividing coastal sections based on multiple attributes, clarifying the development vision of each coastal section, and establishing differentiated use control policies in different coastal sections.


版权信息:
基金项目:自然资源部业务项目(QT4219001、ZY0520001)、山东省海岸带保护与利用规划项目(B20030)资助
作者简介:

邢文秀,硕士,自然资源部第一海洋研究所,助理研究员。xingwenxiu@fio.org.cn

杨湘艳,中国海洋大学海洋与大气学院,硕士研究生。yangxiangyan@stu.ouc.edu.cn

刘大海(通信作者),博士,自然资源部第一海洋研究所,正高级工程师,主任。liudahai@fio.org.cn


译者简介:

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