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2021年第4期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.545
文化景观动态变化视角下的遗产村落保护再生途径
The Conservation and Regeneration Approaches of Historical Villages Under Dynamic Perspective of Cultural Landscapes

云翃 林浩文

Yun Hong, Lin Haowen

关键词:文化景观;遗产保护;活态遗产方法;遗产村落;乡村振兴

Keywords:Cultural Landscape; Heritage Conservation; Living Heritage Approach; Heritage Village; Rural Revitalization

摘要:

我国遗产村落规划的主流理念是“保护第一,利用第二”,但实践中往往与村民的发展诉求产生矛盾。如何营造让村民持续居住的活态遗产村落是当前的实践难点。本文以文献研究的方式,从文化景观视角梳理了遗产村落“作为日常场所”和“作为文化遗产”的差别,指出遗产村落是动态变化的活态遗产;基于国际遗产保护的相关研究,以及对日本街区保护型社区营造案例的实际考察,提出遗产村落保护再生途径。笔者认为过于泛化的静态保护方式在长效上有损于遗产村落的真实性与人地关系,指出:(1)遗产村落的保护目标应转变为维护人地关系;(2)遗产村落保护再生的实践主体应转变为本土社区;(3)遗产村落的形态意象应转变为演化的乡土风格;(4)遗产村落保护再生的实践手段应转变为动态反馈的多次局部设计优化。本研究旨在为我国的活态遗产保护提供理论和实践借鉴。


Abstract:

In China, mainstream of heritage village planning is “utilization comes after conservation”. However, it causes fierce friction when encounters with local community’s aspiration of development. How to build a living heritage village where local community can live continuously is the key point. Through literature review, this paper sorts out the differences between historical villages “as cultural heritage” and “as daily places”, and emphasizes the dynamic state of heritage villages under the concept of “cultural landscape”. The paper points out that the traditional materialbased conservation is harmful to the authenticity of historical villages and the humanland relation in long term. By associating the theoretical study of living heritage approach to the practical experience in Japan, the paper raises four suggestions on regeneration of heritage villages: (1) the practical objectives of heritage villages should maintain the relationship between human and land; (2) the practical subject should be local community; (3) the morphological image of heritage villages should be an evolving local style; (4) the practical measure should be multiple partial optimization with dynamic feedback. The paper tries to provide both theoretical and empirical references for regeneration of living heritages in China.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(51678002)资助
作者简介:

云翃,北京大学城市与环境学院、东京大学都市工学系联合培养博士研究生。yunhong90@aliyun.com

林浩文,北京大学城市与环境学院,博士研究生。haowen_lin@pku.edu.cn


译者简介:

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