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2021年第5期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2021.169
基于手机大数据的职住关系空间尺度问题探讨——以上海市和深圳市为例
Spatial Scale Problem of Jobs-Housing Relationship Based on Cellphone Data: Case Studies of Shanghai and Shenzhen

周新刚 孙晨晨 钮心毅

Zhou Xingang, Sun Chenchen, Niu Xinyi

关键词:职住关系 ;空间尺度 ;职住平衡 ;手机大数据 ;就业自足性 ;过剩通勤

Keywords:Jobs-Housing Relationship; Spatial Scale; Jobs-Housing Balance; Cellphone Data;Employment Self-containment; Excess Commuting

摘要:

尽管职住平衡被认为是减少通勤时耗和交通拥堵的重要策略,但国内外研究对于职住平衡对通勤的影响有不同的结论。原因之一是已有研究多依赖传统调查数据,局限于某一空间分析单元进行分析,由于分析尺度不一致,研究结论结果迥异。手机信令数据同时具有大样本和较高空间精度的优点,可以被聚合到不同尺度的空间分析单元,为厘清职住关系研究中的空间尺度问题提供了新的数据基础。本研究以上海市和深圳市为例,基于手机信令数据,从职住关系的测度和职住平衡能否缓解通勤问题两个方面,系统梳理了职住关系分析中的尺度效应。研究发现,职住关系的指标测度会随着空间分析尺度不同而变化。与小的空间分析单元相比,大的空间分析单元更容易实现较高的职住平衡,单元的就业自足性更高,过剩通勤的比例也更低。同时,职住平衡对通勤距离与就业自足性的影响会随着空间分析单元的扩大而增强。因此,建议通过多尺度比较分析选择合适的空间分析单元,减少尺度效应对于职住关系研究结果的干扰。


Abstract:

Jobs-housing balance has been regarded as an important strategy to reduce commuting distance and to alleviate traffic congestion. However, there are debates about the impact of jobs-housing balance on commuting. One reason for the controversies is that most existing literatures rely on the traditional survey data and are limited to a certain spatial analysis unit, resulting in various conclusions due to different spatial analysis scales. Cellphone data, with the advantages of large sample size and high spatial accuracy, can be aggregated into different spatial scales, providing new data basis for exploring spatial scale problem in the jobs-housing relationship studies. Taking Shanghai and Shenzhen as examples, this study systematically combs the spatial scale effects in the analysis of jobs-housing relationship from two aspects based on cellphone data: the measurement of jobs-housing relationship and whether jobs-housing balance can alleviate the commuting problem. It finds that the measurement indexes of jobs-housing relationship change with different spatial analysis scales. Compared with small spatial analysis units, larger units tend to have a higher jobs-housing balance level, better employment self-containment and less excess commuting. Moreover, the correlation between jobs-housing balance and commuting distance as well as employment self-containment will be significantly enhanced with the expansion of spatial analysis units. Therefore, it suggests that appropriate spatial analysis unit should be selected through multi-scale comparative analyses to reduce the interference of scale effect on the results of jobs-housing relationship studies.


版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“基于手机信令数据的居民就业活动自足性研究——以上海市为例”(41801147),上海同济城市规划设计研究院有限公司暨长三角城市群智能规划协同创新中心科研课题(KY-2020-YB-B01)
作者简介:

周新刚,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室,助理教授,硕士生导师。zhouxgtj@outlook.com

孙晨晨(通信作者),东京大学大学院学际情报学府,博士研究生。sun-chenchen803@g.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

钮心毅,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室,教授,博士生导师。niuxinyi@tongji.edu.cn


译者简介:

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