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2022年第2期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2020.408
社区建成环境审计——推进健康社区的有效工具
Community Built Environment Auditing: An Effective Approach to Healthy Community

牟燕川 王荻 黄瓴

Mou Yanchuan, Wang Di, Huang Ling

关键词:健康社区;建成环境评价;审计工具;微观尺度;系统性观察

Keywords:Healthy Community; Built Environment Assessment; Audit Tool; Micro-scale; Systematic Observation

摘要:

社区建成环境是承载且引导居民健康行为的空间载体。推进健康社区建设的关键问题之一是了解该社区的特征和资源,以及正确认识社区建成环境如何影响个体健康。掌握科学的社区建成环境评价方法对于探索在地性的社区健康提升策略具有重要现实意义。近年来,社区建成环境审计方法常用于公共卫生领域的研究,关注微观尺度环境(如人行道、坐凳空间)的特征和质量,可以支撑更精细尺度的环境现状评估、问题研判和场景模拟分析。本文通过相关理论和实证文献的研究,解读社区建成环境审计工具的特征,识别其价值与核心,同时梳理国际上广泛应用的社区建成环境审计工具的关键信息,在此基础上构建一套适合中国城市特征、以健康为导向的社区建成环境审计工具,以期为推进健康社区建设提供方法支撑。

Abstract:

The community built environment is the physical space to guide residents’ health behaviors. One of the key issues to promote the construction of healthy community is to understand the characteristics and resources of the community, and how the community built environment influences individual health. As a result, it is of great practical significance to develop reasonable method to assess features of built environment considered relevant to promote local community health. In recent years, the community built environment audit tools are often used in the research of public health field, focusing on the characteristics and quality of micro-scale built environment (e.g. sidewalks, outdoor benches). Moreover, the adoption of the tools can support more detailed environmental condition assessment, problem analysis and scenescape simulation. Through the relevant theoretical and empirical literature researches, this study interprets the connotation of community built environment audit tool, identifies its core value and essentials, and summarizes key characteristics of 15 audit tools widely used in the world. On this basis, a set of audit tool which is suitable for Chinese context and health-oriented community built environment is constructed to provide methodological support for promoting healthy community construction.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(52008049),国家自然科学基金(51778078),中国博士后科学基金(2019M663438)
作者简介:

牟燕川,博士,重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验室,助理研究员。yanchuan@cqu.edu.cn

王荻,硕士,成都轨道建设工程保障中心,技术员。snailwd@foxmail.com

黄瓴(通信作者),博士,重庆大学建筑城规学院,山地城镇建设与新技术教育部重点实验室,教授,博士生导师。hwawa1025@vip.163.com


译者简介:

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