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2022年第3期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2022.002
从空间管制到增长管理应对村镇人口收缩——基于对英格兰城乡发展和规划体系的研究
Addressing Town and Village Population Shrinkage by Shifting from Spatial Control to Growth Management: Based on Comparison with England’s Urban-Rural Development and Planning System

郑书剑

Zheng Shujian

关键词:村镇人口收缩;英格兰城乡均衡;增长机遇包容;增长管理;制度政策;规划工具

Keywords:Town and Village Population Shrinkage; Urban-Rural Balance of England; Growth Opportunity Inclusion; Growth Management; Institution & Policy; Planning Tools

摘要:

基于对英格兰城乡发展特征的研究,笔者认为实现村镇经济和社会结构的多元化、推动城乡要素的充分交流是避免村镇过度收缩的重要途径。而要把握村镇地区稀缺的发展机遇,其空间管治体系应建立相应的增长管理机制,从而避免简单套用城市方法、施加过度的空间管制加剧村镇人口收缩。结合对英国地方规 划体系的借鉴,本文所建议的新型国土空间规划增长管理机制,在制度政策层面包括优化村镇地区空间规划体系,建立城乡“共同但有区别”的空间增长约束责任,探索土地产权机制创新等;在规划工具层面,可以尝试设置“潜在发展区”“增长保护线”“低效预警线”等多元多样的创新措施,合理保护、激发增长机遇。 进而在发展生态文明、恪守底线原则的同时,真正有效实现乡村振兴和共同富裕。

Abstract:

Based on comparison with the features of England's urban-rural development, this paper believes that the important ways to avoid excessive shrinkage of towns and villages include diversifying their economic and social structure, and enhancing the communication of urban-rural factors. While to grasp the rare opportunities for towns and villages, their spatial governance system should be built up with corresponding growth management mechanism, so as to prevent simple duplication of the urban methodology, imposing too much spatial control on towns and villages, resulting in even more population shrinkage. Combined with the reference to the local planning system of England, this paper proposes a new growth management mechanism to spatial planning. On the aspect of institution and policy, it shall optimize the planning system structure in towns and villages, establish “common but differentiated” spatial growth constraint responsibilities between urban and rural, and innovate the land ownership system, etc. As to the aspect of planning tools, several new approaches, such as “potential development area”, “development protection area”, “low-efficiency warning area” could be created for rational protection and stimulation of growth opportunities. Thus, with the developing of ecological civilization and the adhering to bottom-line principles, rural vitalization and common prosperity can be truly and effectively realized.

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作者简介:

郑书剑,硕士,广州市天作建筑规划设计有限公司,副总规划师。zhengshujian@163.com

译者简介:

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