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2022年第5期   DOI:10.19830/j.upi.2022.316
从空间规划到环境规划——荷兰空间规划体系中规划权划分的流变
From Spatial Planning to Environmental Planning: The Evolution of Planning Power Division in Dutch Planning System

乔艺波 罗震东

Qiao Yibo, Luo Zhendong

关键词:荷兰;空间规划;环境规划;规划权;流变

Keywords:Dutch; Spatial Planning; Environmental Planning; Planning Power; Evolution

摘要:

荷兰空间规划具有分权协商以达成共识的制度基因。合理的规划权划分是荷兰空间规划能够形塑良好空间品质的必要制度基础。相似的强政府干预和紧土地资源约束使得荷兰空间规划体系中规划权的划分对于中国国土空间规划制度设计具有较强的借鉴意义。从荷兰各级政府享有的规划权来看,在空间规划体系萌芽和形成期(1902—1964年),国家规划和省区域规划对市镇规划纸面上享有法定的强制性权力,但实践中不具可操作性;在发展与繁荣期(1965—2007年),上位规划仅发挥指引作用,实质上充分放权给市镇政府;在过渡与转型期(2008年至今),一方面在财务问题上放权给市镇政府,一方面加强国家和省的空间干预能力。总体上,呈现出各级政府规划权力动态调整、规划内容日益广泛、规划法律大体连续的特点。荷兰空间规划实践对中国的启示在于要合理划分各级政府的规划权,让地方政府享有相对自主的规划权限。 

Abstract:

Dutch spatial planning has the institutional genes of decentralized consultation to reach consensus. Reasonable division of planning power is the necessary institutional basis for Dutch spatial planning to shape good spatial quality. The similar characteristics of strong government intervention and tight land resource constraints make the division of planning power in the Dutch spatial planning system important for the institutional design of Chinese national spatial planning. From the perspective of the planning power enjoyed by all levels of government in the Netherlands, national planning and provincial planning have statutory mandatory powers on municipal planning on paper, but in practice it is not operable in the beginning and formation period of the spatial planning system (1902-1964). In the period of development and prosperity (1965-2007), the upper-level planning only played a guiding role. In essence, it fully delegated power to the municipal government, and then in the transition and transformation period (2008 to present). On the one hand, financial power are decentralized to the municipal government; on the other hand, the national and provincial spatial intervention capabilities are also reinforced. Overall, it reflects the characteristics of continuous changes in planning powers at all levels of government, increasingly extensive planning content, and generally continuous planning laws. The inspiration of the Dutch spatial planning practice to China is to rationally divide the planning power of governments at all levels, so that local governments can enjoy autonomous planning power. 

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51878329)
作者简介:

乔艺波,荷兰乌得勒支大学,博士研究生。y.qiao@uu.nl

罗震东,南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,教授;南京大学空间规划研究中心执行主任;中国城市规划学会总体规划学术委员会委员。luozhendong@nju.edu.cn

 


译者简介:

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