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全文下载次数:57
2018年第3期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.423
基于绿色基础设施的城市社区复兴 —— 以华盛顿特区为例
Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods by Adopting Green Infrastructure: The Case of Washington DC

西奥多· 赵· 林

Theodore Chao Lim

关键词:绿色雨洪设施;基础设施法规;社区复兴;空间分布式基础设施

Keywords:Green Stormwater Infrastructure; Infrastructure Regulation; Neighborhood Revitalization; Spatially Distributed Infrastructure

摘要:

绿色基础设施利用雨水蒸发和下渗的自然过程就地管理雨水径流已得到城市规划领域的广泛认同。除了提供雨洪管理服务,绿色基础设施还有助于提升城市的宜居性,包括缓解城市热岛效应、增加社区服务设施、净化空气,甚至减少犯罪。美国联邦政府的雨洪管理法规对城市水质的要求日益严格,但改造老化的传统基础设施成本高昂,故绿色基础设施便成为实现雨洪管理目标更加有效的途径。本文追溯美国雨洪管理法规的发展对华盛顿特区社区政策之影响,在既有绿色基础设施与社区复兴的研究基础上,探讨由市场驱动的社区复兴其绿色基础设施的布局特征,并通过对政府雨洪政策、市民主动参与以及市场投资等因素进行叠置,分析不同社区类型可能建设的绿色基础设施情景。结果表明社区间的绿色基础设施建设概率存在差异,再投资比例高的社区其布局绿色基础设施的可能性最高。

Abstract:

The concept of Green Infrastructure, or using the natural processes of evapotranspiration and infiltration to manage stormwater runoff close to where rain falls is a popular concept among urbanists. In addition to providing the ecosystem services of flood management, the concept of Green Infrastructure realizes other goals of increasing urban livability, through mitigating urban heat island effect, providing community amenity, purifying air, and even reducing crime. At the same time, Green Infrastructure has been shown to be primarily driven by federal-level stormwater management regulations to make expensive improvements to aging infrastructure. Green Infrastructure is one way that cities may achieve this goal more efficiently. This paper traces the history of stormwater infrastructure regulation and urban sustainability in the US and explains how this national context influenced local policy in Washington DC neighborhoods. In addition to the popular narrative that Green Infrastructure can spur neighborhood revitalization, this paper identifies the market-driven urban processes that determine Green Infrastructure locations in revitalizing neighborhoods. Using an overlay analysis of these factors—centrallydriven planning processes, distributed voluntary participation and distributed development patterns, this paper shows how different neighborhoods throughout the District are likely to have different distributions of Green Infrastructure adoption rates, with areas experiencing high re-investment showing the highest levels of probably Green Infrastructure adoption.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41501169)
作者简介:

西奥多· 赵· 林,美国宾夕法尼亚大学城市与区域规划系,博士;美国蒙桑图(Monsanto)公司环境数据分析师。tlim@design.upenn.edu

译者简介:

殷一鸣,南京大学建筑与城市规划学院,硕士研究生

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