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2018年第3期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2016.027
澳大利亚森林火灾风险相关研究进展及其启示
State-of-the-art of Australian Bushfire Risk Researches and Its Enlightenment

邹志翀 冷红

Zou Zhichong, Leng Hong

关键词:澳大利亚森林火灾;自然灾害风险;灾害风险脆弱性;火灾缓冲区设置

Keywords:Australian Bushfires; Natural Disasters Risk; Disaster Risk Vulnerability; Fire Abatement Zone

摘要:

自然灾害是生态系统的原生组成部分,当它与城市系统发生冲突时会产生巨大的破坏作用。适应性的城市规划能够基于对灾害规律本质的认知,避免或有效降低灾害的冲击,进而减少灾害风险并保障生命财产安全。澳大利亚的森林火灾有其独特的发生、发展、蔓延和演化的规律。澳大利亚的森林火灾研究和其他相关学科的长足发展为其森林火灾适应性城市规划研究奠定了必要的理论基础。本文主要对不同学科在澳大利亚森林火灾规律、城市火灾风险和社区火灾脆弱性的相关研究现状进行归纳分析,并简要介绍现行的澳大利亚首都森林火灾适应性城市规划中的火灾保障区和火灾缓冲区的设置方法。澳大利亚多学科交叉的火灾相关研究促进了其灾害适应性城市规划的发展,其中的宝贵经验和科学做法对发展中国的城市规划有一定的借鉴意义。

Abstract:

Natural disasters originally belong to the ecosystem, which usually bring losses due to their inevitable conflicts with urban systems. Adaptive urban planning is based on essential understanding of disaster principles. Adaptive plans can reduce disasters risk and protect lives, properties and livelihoods by avoiding or diminishing the conflicts between natural disasters and urban systems. Australian bushfires are unique in their special characteristics of occurrence, propagation and interactivities with human systems. Relative researches on bushfires and related disciplines provide a necessary theoretical foundation for Australian bushfire adaptive urban planning studies. This paper introduces the state-of-the-art of researches on Australian bushfire laws, urban bushfire risk, and community bushfire vulnerability. The present Australian Capital Territory Bushfire Adaptive plans and the settings of bushfire prone zones, fire management zones and bushfire abatement zones in specific spatial plans are briefly introduced. Multidisciplinary development of Australian bushfire science benefits its adaptive urban planning to bushfires, which is significantly a positive learning example to promote urban planning in China.

版权信息:
基金项目:村镇区域自然灾害综合风险评估与灾变环境模拟关键技术研究 (2014BAL05B0601),2015 年度黑龙江省留学回国人员择优资助
作者简介:

邹志翀,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,副教授,硕士生导师。zouzhichong@sina.com
冷红,哈尔滨工业大学建筑学院,教授,博士生导师。hitlaura@126.com

译者简介:

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