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2018年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2017.038
城市建成环境对生物多样性的影响要素与优化路径
Built Environment Factors Affecting Urban Biodiversity and Planning Optimization Approaches

干靓

Gan Jing

关键词:城市建成环境;城市生物多样性;影响要素;优化路径

Keywords:Urban Built Environment; Urban Biodiversity; Affecting Factors; Optimization Approaches

摘要:

城市生物多样性是评价城市生态系统服务功能的重要指标,对维护城市系统生态安全和生态平衡、改善城市人居环境具有重要意义。当前中国生态城市建设较多关注交通、能源、建筑等维度的绿色人工环境塑造,而较少涉及城市生物生境系统的营造和修复。本文从城市空间规划设计的视角,通过相关文献的梳理,分析城市建成环境对生物多样性的影响表征,归纳影响城市生物多样性的城市建成环境要素,剖析各类建成环境要素的影响机制,提出提升城市生物多样性需要从“提高生物基层质量”和“减缓人工环境干扰”两维度优化建成环境的路径,从生态用地、植被格局、开发强度、人类活动等四个方面阐述了关键优化指标,为通过城市空间规划设计保护和提升城市生物多样性提供依据。

Abstract:

Urban biodiversity is a key indicator to assess urban ecosystem services, which is of great significance to maintain ecological security and balance of urban system as well as to improve the urban settlement. The current eco-city development in China is centered by the human-oriented built environment focusing on low carbon transportation, energy saving and green building, while fewer researches and practices have been carried out in the field of urban biological habitat system and its relationship with built environment. From the perspective of urban spatial planning and design, this paper reviews relevant literatures on the relationship between urban built environment and urban biodiversity, analyzes the characteristics of urban flora and fauna, summarizes biological substrate elements and artificial interference elements as two dimensions of built environment factors affecting urban biodiversity and their influencing mechanisms. In order to improve the biological substrate quality as well as to mitigate the disturbance by manmade environment, four aspects of key built environment optimization indicators are elaborated: ecological land, vegetation, building intensity and human activities, with a view to provide basis for planning and design to conserve and enhance urban biodiversity.

版权信息:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(51408426),同济大学高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室自主科研项目,上海市科学技术委员会2017 年度“科技创新行动计划”课题(17DZ1203200)
作者简介:

干靓,博士,同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,教师,助理研究员。jinggan@tongji.edu.cn

译者简介:

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