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2018年第4期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2016.096
基于社交大数据挖掘的城市灾害分析 —— 纽约市桑迪飓风的案例
Research on Urban Disaster Analysis Based on the Big Data Mining of Social Media: Case Study of Hurricane Sandy in New York

王森 肖渝 黄群英 张纯

Wang Sen, Xiao Yu, Huang Qunying, Zhang Chun

关键词:社交媒体;大数据;城市安全;减灾;数据挖掘

Keywords:Social Media; Big Data; Urban Security; Mitigation; Data Mining

摘要:

在城市灾害频发的背景下,社交媒体大数据在灾害分析中所能够发挥的作用得到了越来越多的关注。对于社交大数据的挖掘和使用,主要体现在诸如灾情感知、信息编码、事件跟踪、灾难救援以及损失评估等领域。本文以2012 年在美国多地特别是纽约市造成了严重影响的桑迪飓风为例,基于社交媒体网站推特(Twitter)以及相关数据库的信息,通过信息编码、分类以及空间网络的对接等方式,研究发现灾前准备、灾害发生、灾害响应和灾后应对等主题随时间、空间发展的趋势等特征。本文通过构建回归模型描述并讨论了与灾情相关的解释性变量同推文数量间的关系。与此同时,本文参照MMAM 理论①讨论了推文灾情与真实情况的误差产生原因。研究结果表明,推特信息的数量与人口规模和著名的地标性区域显著相关,个人属性如教育程度、年龄、性别等也对推特信息数量产生影响。本文希望通过对信息化背景下社交媒体大数据信息的挖掘和分析,从社交媒体信息发布特征的角度认识灾害发生、发展的过程。

Abstract:

Social media data are attracting an increasing number of attention for their high accessibility and effectiveness on indicating urban disasters. Studies and appliances about social media data are focusing on situational awareness and coding, disaster response and relief, damage assessment, etc. Hurricane Sandy, happened in 2012, becomes the second largest cyclone to hit the USA since 1900, which caused catastrophic damage to many areas especially New York City. Based on Twitter and concerning database, the research outlines the temporal and spatial characters of the information by coding schema development, tweet classification and spatial web portal analysis. The logit regression model in the study examines the explanatory power for varying demographic and socioeconomic variables. Miscalculation and error of using big data to reflect real situation are discussed within the scope of mass, material, access, and motivation (MMAM). Result shows that there is statistical significance between tweet number and population as well as landmarks. Demographic factors like education level, age, sex also influence tweet number. This study contributes to previous studies by profiling hurricane Sandy’s impacts using big data mining and analyzing.

版权信息:
基金项目:自然科学基金面上项目(51778039,51678029)
作者简介:

王森,美国北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校,硕士研究生。senwang@live.unc.edu
肖渝,博士,美国波特兰州立大学,副教授。yuxiao99@gmail.com
黄群英,博士,美国威斯康辛大学麦迪逊分校,副教授。qhuang46@wisc.edu
张纯(通信作者),博士,北京交通大学,副教授,副系主任。zhangc@bjtu.edu.cn

译者简介:

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