点击排行
 
正文
全文下载次数:0
2019年第2期   DOI:10.22217/upi.2019.073
非正规经济下的城市空间发展 :全球趋势与地方规划应对
Urban Spatial Development in the Context of the Informal Economy: Global Trend and Local Planning Response

徐苗 陈宇琳 玛莎·陈

Xu Miao, Chen Yulin, Martha Chen

关键词:非正规经济与就业;城市空间发展;全球趋势;地方应对;城市规划与管治

Keywords:Informal Economy and Employment; Urban Spatial Development; Global Trend; Local Response; Urban Planning and Governance

摘要:

作为本期专辑的序论,本文分为上下两个部分。上篇立足于全球视野,首先概述了城市经济体系中持续快速增长的非正规经济和就业的规模与重要性 ;在此基础上分析了国家与地区差异及其在城市空间上的反映,尤其是中国的特殊性 ;进而从理论基础与政策实践等方面分析了传统城市规划应对城市非正规经济发展的局限与问题。下篇则具体介绍了本专辑收录的 6 篇文章,其中 3 篇来自外国学者的文章是关于国际上对非正规性研究的最新进展,分别对以美国为代表的发达国家的非正规城市发展与管治、发展中国家的非正规住房改善,以及城市规划之于非正规经济与空间管治的误区与局限等问题进行了深入探讨 ;另外 3 篇来自中国学者的文章则分别从非正规就业群体的职住空间失配、非正规住房与社区营造、公共空间的非正规使用与管治等三个方面探讨了中国大城市非正规经济下的空间规划所面临的问题与挑战。

Abstract:

As a preface to this special issue, this paper has two parts. The first part summarizes the scale and importance of the sustained and rapid growth of the informal economy and employment in the urban economic system in worldwide; analyzes the differences between countries and regions and their reflection on urban space, especially in China; and then discusses the limitations and problems of traditional urban planning in dealing with the development of urban informal economy from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The second part introduces the six articles included in this issue. Three of them are from foreign scholars and about the latest international research findings on urban informality. They explore in depth the development and governance of informal cities in developed countries represented by the United States, the informal housing improvement in developing countries and the mistakes and limitations of urban planning in dealing with the informal economy and space. The other three papers are from Chinese scholars and discuss respectively the job- living spatial mismatch for informal workers, the informal housing and community building and the informal use and governance of urban public space, presenting the problems and challenges in the domain of urban spatial planning in face of the pervasive informal economy

版权信息:
基金项目:
作者简介:

徐苗 , 重庆大学建筑城规学院副教授,城乡规划系副系主任,麻省理工学院高级城市研究中心(LCAU)访问学者
陈宇琳,清华大学建筑学院城市规划系副教授,麻省理工学院 SPURS 学者。
chenyulin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
玛莎 · 陈,哈佛大学设计研究生院(GSD)客座教授,哈佛大学肯尼迪学院公共政策系讲师,国际政研究与行动机构 WIEGO 高级顾问

译者简介:

参考文献:
  • [1] 新城市议程 [J]. 城市规划 , 2016(12):19-32.
    [2] 大卫?哈维 . 新自由主义简史 [M]. 上海 : 译文出版社 , 2016.
    [3] CASTELLS M, PORTES A. World underneath: the origins, dynamics and effects of the informal economy, in the informal economy: studies in advanced and less developing countries[M]. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.
    [4] 黄宗智 , 李强,潘毅 , 等 . 中国非正规经济 ( 上 ) [J]. 开放时代 , 2011(1): 5-37.
    [5] 李强 , 唐壮 . 城市农民工与城市中的非正规就业 [J]. 社会学研究 ,2002(6): 13-25.
    [6] ILO: International Labor Office. Women and men in the informal economy: a statistical picture[R]. Geneva: International Labor Organization, 2002.
    [7] ANNE VISSER M, GUARNIZO L E. Room for manoeuvre: rethinking the intersections between migration and the informal economy in post-industrial
    economies[J]. Population, Space and Place, 2017, 23(7): e2085.
    [8] CHEN M. The informal economy: definitions, theories and policies[R].WIEGO Working Paper No 1, Cambridge, MA, 2012.
    [9] ILO. Women and men in the informal economy: a statistical picture, 2nd ed[R]. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2014.
    [10] 黄宗智 . 中国的非正规经济再思考 : 一个来自社会经济史与法律史视角的导论 [J]. 开放时代 , 2017(2): 153-163.
    [11] SASSEN S. New York City’s informal economy[EB/OL]. UCLA: Institute for Social Science Research. (1988)[2019-02-10].
    https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8927m6mp.
    [12] HART K. Income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana[J]. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 1973, 11(1): 61-89.
    [13] SASSEN-KOOB S. Guests and aliens[M]. New York: The New Press, 1999.
    [14] SASSEN S, ed. Global networks, linked cities[M]. London/New York: Routledge, 2002.
    [15] CASTELLS M. Globalisation, networking, urbanisation: reflections on the spatial dynamics of the information age[J]. Urban Studies, 2010, 47(13): 2737-2745.
    [16] LAKNER C, MILANOVIC B. Global income distribution: from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the great recession[J]. Policy Research Working Paper Series, 2013, 17(32): 71-128.
    [17] SUNDERHAUS S. SURVEY/DATA, regularization programs for undocumented migrants[J]. Migration Letters, 2007, 4(1): 65-76.
    [18] VISSER M A, MELéNDEZ E. Working in the new low-wage economy: understanding participation in low-wage employment in the recessionary era[J]. WorkingUSA, 2015, 18(1): 7-29.
    [19] RYE F J. Negotiating neoliberalism: informalisation and reformalisation of industrial relations in Norway’s agricultural industry in the 21st century[J]. Population, Space and Place, 2017, 23: e2042.
    [20] SCOTT S. Informalisation in low-wage labour markets: a case study of the UK food industry[J]. Population Space & Place, 2016, 23: e2043.
    [21] LOWE N, ISKANDER N. Power through problem solving: Latino immigrants and the inconsistencies of economic restructuring[J]. Population, Space and Place, 2017: e2023.
    [22] SIMPSON S. Spatial patterns of international migrant resident settlement and incorporation in Winnipeg Manitoba[J].  Population, Space and Place, 2017: e2060.
    [23] CHEN M A, SINHA S. Home-based workers and cities[J]. Environment and Urbanization, 2016(2): 343-358.
    [24] MUKHIJA V, LOUKAITOUSIDERIS A. The informal American city: beyond taco trucks and day labor[M]. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2014.
    [25] MOSER C O N. Informal sector or petty commodity production: Dualism or dependence in urban development?[J]. World  Development, 1978, 6(9/10): 1041-1064.
    [26] PORTES A, SASSEN S. Making it underground: comparative material on the urban informal sector in western market economies[J]. American Journal of Sociology, 1987, 93(1): 30-61.
    [27] PORTES A, CASTELLS M, BENTON L A, eds. The informal economy: studies in advanced and less developed countries[M]. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.
    [28] ROY A. Urban informality-toward an epistemology of planning[J]. Journal of the American Planning Association, 2005(2): 147-158.
    [29] BERNHARDT A, BOUSHEY H, DRESSER L, et al. The gloves-off economy: workplace standards at the bottom of America’s labor market[R]. Champaign, IL: Labor and Employment Relations Association, 2008.
    [30] DE SOTO H. Structural adjustment and the informal sector[J]. Microenterprises in Developing Countries, 1989, 58(4): 1-12.
    [31] PEATTIE L A. An idea in good currency and how it grew: the informal sector[J]. World Development, 1987, 15(7): 851-860.
    [32] ISKANDER N, LOWE N. Hidden talent: tacit skill formation and labor market incorporation of Latino immigrants in the United States[J]. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2010, 30(2): 132-146.
    [33] WATSON V. Seeing from the south: refocusing urban planning on the globe’s central urban issues[J]. Urban Study, 2009(11): 2259-2275.

《国际城市规划》编辑部    北京市车公庄西路10号东楼E305/320    100037
邮箱:upi@vip.163.com  电话:010-58323806  传真:010-58323825
京ICP备13011701号-6  京公网安备11010802014223

3616488